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We'll use these articles as the basis for the discussions we will have about qualitative methods. Articles will be added throughout the semester and there will be articles here that we do not read for the independent study. Feel free to take whatever seems interesting.

Also, if you have articles that you think should be here, send me the URLs and a copies if you have them, and I will add them.

This list will grow over the next few months and will be the basis for a bibliography that you can use for further work.

1. Grounding qualitative methods 2. Trusting qualitative research 3. Mixed methods

4. Content Analysis 5. Interviewing 6. Case Study

7. Ethnography 8. Ethnomethodology 9. Discourse Analysis

10. Evaluating qualitative methods 11. Qualitative and quantitative research 12. Social theory

13. Useful resources

Reading list

Grounding qualitative methods

Archer, M. (2002). Realism and the problem of agency Journal of Critical Realism, 5:1, 11-20.

Aubusson, P. (2002). Using Metaphor to Make Sense and Build Theory in Qualitative Analysis. The Qualitative Report, 7(4)


Becker, H.. (1996). The epistemology of qualitative research In R. Jessor, A. Colby, and R. Shweder (Eds.), Ethnography and Human Development (pp. 53-71). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Caelli, L.R. and Mill, J. (2003). 'Clear as mud': Toward greater clarity in generic qualitative research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 2(2)


Crossan, F. (nd). Research philosophy: towards an understanding. Nurse Researcher, 11(1)

Hirschheim, R.A. (1994). Information Systems Epistemology: An historical perspective. n Information Systems Research: Issues, Methods and Practical Guidelines, R. Galliers (ed.), Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1992, pp. 28-60.

Hyde, K. (2000). Recognising deductive processes in qualitative research. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 3(2), 82-89

Joniak, L. The qualitative paradigm: An overview of some basic concepts, assumptions, and theories of qualitative research.

Krauss, S.E. (2005). Research paradigms and meaning making: A primer . The Qualitative Report, 10(4). 758-770

Maxwell, J.A. (2004). Causal explanation, qualitative research, and scientific Inquiry in education.

Morse, J. Constructing qualitatively derived theory: Concept construction and concept typologies. Keynote Address: Fifth International Advances in Qualitative Methods Conference

Orlikowski, W.J. and Baroudi, J.J. (1991). Studying Information Technology in Organizations: Research Approaches and Assumptions. Information Systems Research (2) 1991, pp. 1-28.,%20Assumptions,%20and%20Generalizability%20in%20IS%20Research/Orlikowski-ISR-2-1.pdf

Ragin, C.C., Nagel, J. and White, P. (2004). Workshop on scientific foundations of qualitative research. National Science Foundation

Steiner, C.J. (2002). The technicity paradigm and scientism in qualitative research. The Qualitative Report, 7(2)


Tarde, G. (2000). Social laws: An outline of sociology. Kitchner, CA: Batoche Books.

Udhen, L. (2002). The changing face of methodological individualism. Annual Review of Sociology, 28: 479-507

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Trusting qualitative research

Baxter, J. and Eyles, J. (1997). Evaluating Qualitative Research in Social Geography: Establishing 'Rigour' in Interview Analysis. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 22 (4), 505–525.

Bochner, B.P. (2000). Criteria Against Ourselves. Qualitative Inquiry, 6(2), 266-272

Cho, J. and Trent, A. (2006). CValidity in qualitative research revisited. Qualitative Research, 6(3), 319-340

Crang, M. (1998). Qualitative methods: The new orthodoxy?. Applied Linguistics, 19(3), 334-356

Dunican, E. (ND). A Framework for Evaluating Qualitative Research Methods in Computer Programming Education. In P. Romero, J. Good, E. Acosta Chaparro and S. Bryant (Eds). Proc. PPIG 17 Pages 255 - 267

Edge, J. and Richards, K. (1998). May I see your warrant please?: Justifying outcomes in qualitative research. Applied Linguistics, 19(3), 334-356

Ellis, C. (2000). Creating Criteria: An Ethnographic Short Story. Qualitative Inquiry, 6(2), 273-277

Guion, L.A. (2002). Triangulation: Establishing the Validity of Qualitative Studies. FCS6014 Department of Family, Youth and Community Sciences, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.

Harrison, J. MacGibbon, L., and Morton, M. (2001). Regimes of trustworthiness in qualitative research: The rigors of reciprocity. Qualitative Inquiry, 7(3), 323-345

Hayes, A.F. (2005). An SPSS procedure for computing Krippendorff's alpha [Computer software]


Islam, N. (1986). On the question of validation in qualitative methodology. Social Science Review, Vol. III, 16-39.

Janesick, V.J. (2001). Intuition and Creativity: A Pas de Deux for Qualitative Researchers Qualitative Inquiry, 531-541

Kincheloe, J.L. (2001). Describing the Bricolage: Conceptualizing a New Rigor in Qualitative Research. Qualitative Inquiry, 7(6), 679-692

Kincheloe, J.L. (2005). On to the Next Level: Continuing the Conceptualization of the Bricolage. Qualitative Inquiry, 11(3), 323-350

Kripendorf, K. (nd). Computing Krippendorff's Alpha-Reliability


Lincoln, Y.S. (2001). An Emerging New Bricoleur: Promises and Possibilities - A Reaction to Joe Kincheloe's "Describing the Bricoleur" Qualitative Inquiry, 7(6), 693-705

Meyers, M. (2000). Qualitative research and the generalizability question: Standing firm with Proteus. The Qualitative Report, 4(3/4)


Morse, J.L. (2004). Constructing Qualitatively Derived Theory: Concept Construction and Concept Typologies Qualitative Health Rearch, 14(10), 1387-1395

Onwuegbuzie, A.J. and Leech, N.L. (2007). Validity and Qualitative Research: An Oxymoron?Quality and Quantity ,41(2), 233-249 c6c1c63267ed44bda244547041312b25&pi=4

Qualitative Research and Health Working Group. (2002). Criteria for evaluating qualitative studies

Richardson, L. (2000). Introduction - Assessing Alternative Modes of Qualitative and Ethnographic Research: How Do We Judge? Who Judges? Qualitative Inquiry, 6(2), 251-252

Stiles, W. (1999). Evaluating qualitative research. Evidence-Based Mental Health 1999; 2:99-101

Wainwright, D. (1997). Can sociological research be qualitative, critical and valid?. The Qualitative Report, 3(2)


Whittemore, R., Chase, S.K and Mandle, C.L. (2001). Validity in qualitative research. Qualitative Health Research, Vol. 11, No. 4

Winter, G. (2000). A comparative discussion of the notion of 'validity' in qualitative and quantitative research. The Qualitative Report, 4(3/4)


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Mixed methods

Bryman, A. (2007). Barriers to Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research 1(1)

Bryman, A. (2006). Integrating quantitative and qualitative research: how is it done?. Qualitative Research 6(1) 97–113

Falconer, D.J. and Mackay, D.R. (1999). The Key to the Mixed Method Dilemma. Australian Conference on Information Systems

Fitzgerald, B. and Howcroft, D. (1998). Competing dichotomies in IS research and possible strategies for resolution. Proceedings of the international conference on Information Systems. 155-164

Jick, T.D. (1979). Mixing qualitative and quantitative methods: Triangulation in action. Administrative Science Quarterly 24(4) 602-611

Kaplan, B. and Duchon, D. (1988). Combining qualitative and quantitative methods in information systems research: A case study. MIS Quarterly 12(4) 602-611

Kelle, U. (2001). Sociological Explanations between Micro and Macro and the Integration of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods. Forum: Qualitative Social Research 2(1)

Mahoney, J. and Goertz, G. (2006). A Tale of Two Cultures: Contrasting Quantitative and Qualitative Research. Political Analysis 14, 227–249

Mingers, J. (2003). The paucity of multimethod research: A review of the information systems literature. Information Systems Journal 13(3), 233-249

Morgan, D.L. (2007). Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods Paradigms Lost and Pragmatism Regained: Methodological Implications of Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods. Journal of Mixed Methods Research 1(1)

Morse, J.M. and Chug, S.E. (2003). Toward Holism: The Significance of Methodological Pluralism. Journal of Mixed Methods Research 1(1)

Onwuegbuzie, A.J. and Leech, N.L. (2004). Enhancing the Interpretation of Significant Findings: The Role of Mixed Methods Research. The Qualitative Report, 9(4)


Onwuegbuzie, A.J. and Leech, N.L. (2006). Linking Research Questions to Mixed Methods Data Analysis Procedures. The Qualitative Report, 11(3), 474-498

Sale, J.E.M., Lohfeld, L.H. and Brazil, K. (2002). Revisiting the Quantitative-Qualitative Debate: Implications for Mixed-Methods Research. Quality and Quantity 36(1), 43-53.

Sheffield, E. (2004). Beyond abstraction: Philosophy as a practical qualitative research method. The Qualitative Report, 9(4), 760-769.


Teddlie, C. and Yu, F. (2007). Mixed Methods Sampling: A Typology With Examples. Journal of Mixed Methods Research 1(1)

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Content Analysis

Carletta, J. (2005). Assessing agreement on classification tasks: the kappa statistic.

Evans, W.E. (2005). Content anlysis resources: Software for content analysis: Links to external sites

Morris, R. (1994). Computerized Content Analysis in Management Research: A Demonstration of Advantages and Limitations. Journal of Management, 20(4), 903-931

Neuendorf, K.A. (2005). The Content Analysis Guidebook Online

See especially


Stemler, S. (2001). An Overview of Content Analysis. Practical Assessment, Research and Evaluation. 7(17)

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Schaeffer, N.C. and Press, S. (2003). The science of asking questions. Annual Review of Sociology, 29, 65-88.

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Case Study

Gerring, J. (2006). Single-Outcome Studies: A Methodological Primer. International Sociology, Vol. 21, No. 5, 707-734.

Lubbe, S. (2003). The Development of a Case Study Methodology in the Information Technology (IT) Field: A Step by Step Approach. Ubiquity 4(27).

Mjoset. L. (2006). A Case Study of a Case Study: Strategies of Generalization and Specification in the Study of Israel as a Single Case. International Sociology 21(5), 735-766.

Morra, L.G. and Friedlander, A.C. Case Study Evaluations. The World Bank Operations Evaluation Department

Steinmetz, G. (2004). Odious Comparisons: Incommensurability, the Case Study, and 'Small N's' in Sociology*. Sociological Theory 22(3), 371-400

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Guimaraes Jr., M. (2004). Doing online ethnography doingonlineethnography.pdf

Knoblauch, H. (2005). Focused Ethnography. Forum: Qualitative Social Research. Volume 6, No. 3, Art. 44

Nadai, E. and Maeder, C. (2005). Fuzzy Fields. Multi-Sited Ethnography in Sociological Research. Forum: Qualitative Social Research. Volume 6, No. 3, Art. 28

Ponterotto J.G. (2006). Brief note on the origins, evolution, and meaning of the qualitative research concept thick description. The Qualitative Report, 11(3), 538-549

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Atkinson, P. (1988). Ethnomethodology: A critical review. Annual Review of Sociology, 14:441-465.

Kim, K.M. (1999). The management of temporality: Ethnomethodology as historical reconstruction of practical actionThe Sociological Quarterly, 40(3), 505-523.

Koskinen, I. (2001). Workplace studies: An ethnomethodological approach to CSCW

Marcon, T. and Gopalm A. (2003). 'Everybody had their say': Making sense of voice and silence in technological settings 2003/abstracts/silenceandvoice/Marcon.pdf -

Marcon, T. and Gopalm A. (2003). Irony, critique and ethnomethodology in the study of computer work: Fundamental tensions CMS3 2003/proceedings/exploringthemeaning/Marcon.pdf

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Discourse Analysis

Antaki, C., Billig, M., Edwards, D., and Potter, J. (2003). Discourse analysis means doing analysis: A Critique of six analytic shortcomings. Discourse Analysis Online, 1(1).

Fairclough, N. (1985). Critical and descriptive goals in discourse analysis. Journal of Pragmatics, 9, 739-763.

Fairclough, N. (1993). Critical Discourse Analysis and the Marketization of Public Discourse: The Universities. Discourse Society, 4(2), 133-168

Hammersley, M. (1997). On the foundations of critical discourse analysis. Language and Communication, 17(3), 237-248.

Lazaraton, A. (2002). Quantitative and qualitative approaches to discourse analysis. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 22(1), 32-51.

Luke, A. (2002). Beyond science and ideology critique: Developments in critical discourse analysis. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 22(1), 96-110.

Maiwald, K.O. (2005). Competence and Praxis: Sequential Analysis in German Sociology. Forum: Qualitative Social Research. Volume 6, No. 3, Art. 31

Reiner Keller, R. (2005) Analysing Discourse. An Approach From the Sociology of Knowledge. Forum: Qualitative Social Research. Volume 6, No. 3, Art. 32

van Dijk, T.A. (1993). Critical Discourse Analysis and the Marketization of Public Discourse: The Universities. Discourse Society, 4(2), 133-168

van Leeuwen, T. (1993). Principles of Critical Discourse Analysis . Discourse Society, 4(2), 1249-283.

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Evaluating qualitative methods

Anfara, V.A. Jr., Brown, K.M. and Mangione, T.L. (2002). Qualitative analysis on stage: Making the research process more public Educational Researcher, October, 28-38.

Crawford, K.H., Leybourne, M.L. and Arnott, A. (2000). How we ensured rigour in a multi-site, multi-discipline, multiresearcher study. Forum: Qualitative Social Research. 1(1).

Creswell, J.W. and Miller, D.L. (2000). Determining validity in qualitative inquiry. Theory into Practice, 39(3), 123-130.

Fitzgerald, B. and Howcraft, D. (1998). Competing dichotomies in IS research and possible strategies for resolution. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Systems, 155-164.

Glaser, B.G. (2004). Naturalist inquiry and grounded theory. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 5(1).

Heap, J.L. (1995). Constructionism in the rhetoric and practice of fourth generation evaluation. Evaluation and Program Planning, 18(1) 51-61

Hoepfl, M.C. (1997). Choosing qualitative research: A primer for technology education researchers. Journal of Technology Education, 9(1), 47-63.

Lombard, M., Snyder-Duch, J. and Campanella Bracken, C. (22004). Practical Resources for Assessing and Reporting Intercoder Reliability in Content Analysis Research Projects


Lucas, J.W. (2003). Theory-Testing, Generalization, and the Problem of External Validity. Sociological Theory, 21(3), 236-253


Malterud, K. (2001). Qualitative research: Standards, challenges, and guidelines. The Lancet, 358, 483-488.

Mauthner, N.S. Parry, O. and Backett-Milburn, K. (1998). The data are out there, or are they? Implications for archiving and revisiting qualitative data. Sociology, 32(4), 733-745.

Morse, J.M., Barrett, M., Mayan, M., Olson, K. and Spiers, J. (2002). Verification strategies for establishing reliability and validity in qualitative research. International Journal of Qualitative Methods. 1(2), 1-19.

Seale, C. (2002). Quality issues in qualitative inquiry. Qualitative Social Work, 1(1), 97-110.

Williams, M. (2000). Interpretivism and generalisation. Sociology, 34(2), 209-224.

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Qualitative and quantitative research

Bryman, A.. (2001). Triangulation sage/socialscience/triangulation.pdf

Feldman, D.C. (2004). The Devil is in the Details: Converting Good Research into Publishable Articles. Journal of Management 2004 30: 1-6.


Gephart, R.P. (1986). Deconstructing the defense for quantification in social science: A content analysis of journal articles on the parametric strategy. Qualitative Sociology 9(2). 126-146.

Krantz, D.L. (1995). Sustaining vs. resolving the quantitative-qualitative debate Evaluation and Program Planning, 18(I), 89-96.

Lee, A. S. (1991). Integrating Positivist and Interpretive Approaches to Organizational Research Organization Science, (2), 342-365.

Livsey, C. (nd) Module one: Theory and methods Unit M14: Reliability, validity and triangulation

Mahoney, J. and Goertz, G. (2006) A Tale of Two Cultures: Quantitative and Qualitative Research Political Analysis 14(3), 227-49.

Sechrest, D. (1995). Quantitative and qualitative methods: Is there an alternative?. Evaluation and Program Planning, 18(I), 77-87.

Shadish, W.R. (1995). Philosophy of science and the quantitative-qualitative debates: Thirteen common errors. Evaluation and Program Planning, 18(I), 63-75.

Shadish, W.R. (1995). Guest editor's introduction - The quantitative-qualitative debates: "DeKuhnifying" the conceptual context. Evaluation and Program Planning, 18(I), 47-49.

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Social theory

Ashforth, B.E. and Mael, F. (1989). Social Identlty theory and the organization The Academy of Management Review, 14(1), 20-39.

Goulding, C. (2005). Grounded theory, ethnography and phenomenology: A comparative analysis of three qualitative strategies for marketing research. European Journal of Marketing, 39(3/4), 294-308.

Hanseth, O., Aanestad, M., and Berg, M. (2004). Actor-network theory and information systems. What's so special? Information Technology and People, 116-123

Kim, H.D. (2003). Functionalism Revisited: A practice based Functionalism Approach in Organizational Research

Joseph, J. and Kennedy, S. (2000). The Structure of the Social. Philosophy of the Social Sciences, Vol. 30 No. 4, December 2000 508-527

Klein, H.K. and Kleinman, D.L. (2002). The Social Construction of Technology: Structural Considerations. Science, Technology and Human Values 2002 27: 28-52.

Mirchandani, R. (2005). Postmodernism and Sociology: From the Epistemological to the Empirical Sociological Theory 23(1), 86-102.

Niemi, J.I.(2005). Jurgen Habermas's theory of communicative rationality: The foundational distinction between communicative and strategic action. Social Theory and Practice, 31(4), 513-532

Pozzebon, M. and Pinsonneault. (2001). Structuration theory in the IS Field: An assessment of research strategies The 9th European Conference on Information Systems Bled, Slovenia, June 27-29

Schutz, A. (1954). Concept and Theory Formation in the Social Sciences The Journal of Philosophy, 51(9), pp. 257-273.

Urquhart, C. (2001). An Encounter with Grounded Theory: Tackling the Practical and Philosophical Issues In Trauth, E. (ed.). Qualitative research in IS: issues and trends, 104-140

White, H. (nd). What is theory?

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Useful resources


Bennett, A. and George, A. (2005). Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences. MIT Press.

Creswell, John W. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Creswell, John W. (2003). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method approaches. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Creswell, John W. (2005). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.

Denzin, Norman K., and Lincoln, Yvonna S. (2005). The SAGE handbook of qualitative research. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Patton, Michael Quinn. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Stoecker, R. (2005). Research methods for community change : a project-based approach. Thousand Oaks, Sage Publications.

Strauss, Anselm L., and Corbin, Juliet M. (1998). Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Yin, Robert K. (2003). Case study research: Design and methods. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

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