University School of Library and Information Science
L505 : Organization and representation of knowledge and information
Fall 2006

Instructor: Elin Jacob
Office: 002D SLIS
Office phone: 812-855-4671
Office fax: 812-855-6166
Office hours: Monday/Thursday 3:00-4:30pm or by appointment



The representation and organization of information resources is a primary focus of the information profession. Organizational and representational structures such as classification schemes, indexes, and catalogs have been devised to provide access to information. The recent explosive growth in both the number and variety of information resources underscores the continuing need for application of effective methods of representation and organization.

Practical and effective information systems depend upon a comprehensive understanding not only of formal systems of organization and representation but also of human cognition itself. Accordingly, this course will investigate the basic principles and theoretical foundations of traditional representational and organizational schemes and review research in information science, cognitive science, semiotics, and computer science -- research that has contributed to an understanding of how people obtain, store, retrieve and use information. It will examine how this research can inform current practices of representation and organization in the design of more effective and more efficient information retrieval systems.

Course Objectives

By the end of the course, participants will

  1. Be aware of a broad range of representational models drawn from the fields of communication, semiotics, philosophy, cognitive psychology, and the computer and information sciences.
  2. Understand the principles and functions of metadata structures such as classification schemes, precoordinate and postcoordinate indexing systems, and thesauri as well as the related process of abstracting and representation.

Class Organization

Each class session will include lecture, discussion and in-class activities focusing on the topic and required readings identified in the syllabus. Students may be asked to work in small groups and to report on the results of small-group discussions. Students are encouraged to participate actively in all lectures and discussions since participation in class activities and discussions will constitute 20% of each student's final grade.


Required readings have been selected to facilitate student participation in class discussions and in-class group activities. The Schedule of LECTURES and READINGS (pp. 6-18) lists both required and recommended readings for each class session. Most of the required and recommended readings will be available online, either on the Web or through electronic reserves. Copies of required and recommended readings that are not available on electronic reserve will be available in hard copy format in the Kent Cooper Room. The url for electronic reserves is:
The password necessary to access the list of readings will be provided in class.
Assigned readings are subject to amendment by the instructor.


Each student's final course grade will be computed on the basis of grades earned for warm-up questions, mid-term exam, faceted classification, final exam and class participation. Satisfactory fulfillment of the minimum course requirements as outlined in the syllabus is considered "Good work" and will constitute a grade of B (see "GRADING SCALE", p. 6). Grades of A for work demonstrating "Outstanding achievement" or A- for "Excellent achievement" indicate "thorough knowledge of the course materials" and will be assigned only when the intellectual quality of a student's work surpasses expectations reflected in the minimum course requirements.

Warm-up questions 40%
Mid-term exam 15%
Faceted scheme 10%
Final exam 25%
Class participation 10%

Warm-up Questions

Warm-up questions are intended to assess student comprehension of the materials addressed in the readings; to provide an opportunity to apply the principles covered in class discussions; and/or to encourage the integration of conceptual material and practical experience.

Responses to warm-up questions will constitute 40% of the student's final course grade. Each response will be assigned a numerical grade on a scale of 0 to 4:
0 = no response or unacceptable effort demonstrating failure to comprehend
1 = marginal effort demonstrating marginal understanding
2 = good effort demonstrating incomplete understanding
3 = good effort demonstrating basic understanding
4 = good effort demonstrating complete understanding

When a warm-up question consists of multiple parts, each part will be graded individually and the earned grade will be computed as an average of the grades assigned for individual parts.

Warm-up questions will be posted on Oncourse on the Monday preceding class. Responses are to be submitted no later than 9:00 am on the day of class and should be emailed to the instructor with the subject line "Warm-up response for Session X". Late submissions will be reviewed and a maximum grade of 3 will be assigned *if* they are submitted before 5:00 pm on the day of class. Submissions submitted after 5:00 pm on the day of class will not be graded.

There will be a total of ten (10) warm-up questions, each associated with a particular class session. Warm-up questions will not be posted for Session 1 or for class sessions when other assignments are due: Session 7 (mid-term exam due); Session 13 (faceted classification due); Session 14 (final exam due December 12).

Mid-term Exam

The mid-term exam will constitute 15% of the student's final course grade. It will be a take-home exam consisting of not more than three (3) essay questions. The exam will be posted on Oncourse prior to class on 4 October 2006 and any questions about the exam will be answered in class. Exams will be turned in at the start of class on 11 October 2006.

Faceted Vocabulary

Construction of a faceted vocabulary will constitute 10% of the student's final course grade. Instructions for creation of the vocabulary will be posted on Oncourse prior to class on 15 November 2006. Faceted vocabularies will be turned in at the start of class on 29 November 2006.

Final Exam

The final exam will constitute 25% of the student's final course grade. It will be a take-home exam consisting of not more than six (5) essay questions. The exam will be posted on Oncourse on 4 December 2006. Questions about the exam will be answered in class on 6 December 2006. Completed exams will be turned in no later than 5:00 pm on 12 December 2006.

Class Participation

Assigned readings, class discussions and small group activities are intended to create a learning community and to promote critical literacy skills among all students -- skills of reading, writing, listening, speaking and thinking. It is important for all students to actively participate in class discussions and in-class activities since the success of these activities requires substantive and meaningful contributions from all students.

Class participation will constitute 10% of the student's final grade. The grade assigned for class participation will reflect a student's participation in discussions and activities during class sessions and will be assessed on the following criteria:

  1. Attendance.
  2. Regular and voluntary contributions to class discussions.
  3. Ability to tie observations to the ideas developed in the readings, to the contributions of other discussants and/or to ideas presented in other classes.
  4. Contribution of observations or ideas that are original or diverge from commonly accepted notions.
  5. Continuous demonstration of respect for the ideas, opinions and feelings of all members of the class.

Schedule of Assignment Due Dates

Warm-up question September 6
Warm-up question September 13
Warm-up question September 20
Warm-up question September 27
Warm-up question October 4
Mid-term exam October 11 (Session 7)
Warm-up question October 18
Warm-up question October 25
Warm-up question November 1
Warm-up question November 8
Warm-up question November 15
Faceted vocabulary November 29 (Session 13)
Final exam December 12

Late Submissions

Responses to warm-up questions must be submitted by 9:00 am on the class day for which they are assigned. Late submissions will be graded as described (see Warm-up Questions, above) if they are submitted before 5:00 pm on the day of class. Submissions submitted after 5:00 pm on the day of class will not be accepted.

In fairness to students who turn in assignments on time, late papers (other than warm-up questions) will be penalized by lowering the earned grade one level for each day that the paper is late. For example, a paper with an earned grade of A- will receive a grade of B+ if it is one day late, a grade of B if it is two days late, etc.


Each student is expected to complete all coursework by the end of the term. A grade of incomplete [ I ] will be assigned only when exceptional circumstances warrant.

Academic Dishonesty

As Dr. Alice Robbin observes in her Fall 2006 syllabus for SLIS L509, there is more to avoiding plagiarism than simply citing a reference. Dr. Robbin points out that, in order to aid students both in recognizing plagiarism and in avoiding the appearance of plagiarism, Indiana University's Writing Tutorial Services has prepared a short guide entitled "Plagiarism: what it is and how to recognize and avoid it". This guide is available at:

The guide provides explicit examples of plagiarism and offers strategies for avoiding it. Each student should be familiar with this document and use it as a guide when completing assignments.

Dr. Robbin also offers tips on avoiding inadvertent plagiarism that she gleaned from Ralph Brower, a colleague at Florida State University:

  1. Whenever you "borrow" material, from any resource whatsoever, for inclusion in a document you are writing, you must provide a footnote, endnote or parenthetical reference (with accompanying bibliographic citation) identifying the original resource. If you have any questions about how to do this, review the guidelines set out in the APA Style Manual.
  2. Any time that you quote any resource verbatim, you must enclose the text in quotation marks and identify the original resource, as indicated in (1).
  3. Ideas that you paraphrase must also be attributed, as indicated in (1), even if you do not quote the original source verbatim.

Policies on academic dishonesty have been established by Indiana University and the School of Library and Information Science. These policies, which have been set out in the Code of Student Ethics, will be adhered to in this class. Any assignment that contains plagiarized material or indicates any other form of academic dishonesty will receive, at a minimum, a grade of F. A second instance will result in an automatic grade of F for the course. Penalties may be harsher depending on the severity of the offense.


If you are a student with a special need, please feel free to discuss it with the instructor.

Grading Scale

All grades will be assigned according to the SLIS Grading Policy for Master's and Specialist Level Students. This policy was defined by student and faculty members of SLIS's Curriculum Steering Committee and was adopted by the Faculty of the School of Library and Information Science, Indiana University, on November 11, 1996, as an aid in evaluation of student performance:

Grade Numerical Equivalent Definition
A 4.0 Outstanding achievement. Student performance demonstrates full command of the course materials and evinces a high level of originality and/or creativity that far surpasses course expectations.
A- 3.7 Excellent achievement. Student performance demonstrates thorough knowledge of the course materials and exceeds course expectations by completing all requirements in a superior manner.
B+ 3.3 Very good work. Student performance demonstrates above-average comprehension of the course materials and exceeds course expectations on all tasks as defined in the course syllabus.
B 3.0 Good work. Student performance meets designated course expectations, demonstrates understanding of the course materials and performs at an acceptable level.
B 2.7 Marginal work. Student performance demonstrates incomplete understanding of course materials.
Unsatisfactory work. Student performance demonstrates incomplete and inadequate understanding of course materials.
Unacceptable work. Coursework performed at this level will not count toward the MLS or MIS degree. For the course to count toward the degree, the student must repeat the course with a passing grade
F 0.0 Student may continue in program only with


NOTE: For each class session, the following schedule includes a topic statement, a list of required readings and a description of the assignment (if any) that is to be included in the student's journal. Required readings are listed in the order in which they should be read. The journal assignment and all required readings are to be completed before the scheduled class session. Recommended readings are grouped loosely by general topic; and, within each topic, individual readings are listed alphabetically. Recommended readings may be read in any order at any point across the semester.

Session 1 -- August 30

Topic:Introduction to organization.

Recommended readings:

Jacob, E.K., & Albrechtsen, H. (1999). When essence becomes function: post-structuralist implications for an ecological theory of organisational classification systems. In T.D. Wilson & D.K. Allen (Eds.), Exploring the contexts of information behaviour. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Research in Information Needs, Seeking and Use in Different Contexts, 13-15 August 1998, Sheffield, UK (pp. 519-534). London: Taylor Graham.

Session 2 -- September 6

Topic:Representation. Abstracting.

Required readings for Session 2:

Barsalou, L. W. (1992). Representation. In Cognitive Psychology: an overview for cognitive scientists (p. 52-56 only). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

McCloud, S. (1994). Understanding comics: the invisible art (p. 26-41). New York: HarperCollins.

Brown, R. (1958). How shall a thing be called? Psychological Review 65, 14-21.

Peat, F. D. (1993). Science as story. In C. Simpkinson and A. Simpkinson (Eds.), Sacred stories (p. 53-62). San Francisco: Harper.

National Information Standards Organization. (1996). Guidelines for abstracts. ANSI/NISO Z39.14-1997. American National Standards Institute. Available at:

Recommended readings -- Representation:

Arnheim, R. (1969). Words in their place. In Visual thinking (p. 226-253). Berkeley: University of California Press.

Recommended readings -- Abstracting:

Borko, H., & Bernier, C. L. (1975). Characteristics and types of abstracts. In Abstracting concepts and methods (p. 3-24). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Lancaster, F. W. (1998). Abstracts: types and functions (p. 94-106). Writing the abstract (p. 107-126). In Indexing and abstracting in theory and practice, 2nd ed. . Champaign, IL: Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Illinois.

Session 3 -- September 13

Topic:Data, information, knowledge.

Required readings for Session 3:

Brown, J.S. & Duguid, P. (2000). Introduction (pp. 1-9). Chapter 1: Limits to information (pp. 11-33). In The social life of information. Boston: Harvard University Press. Available at:

Buckland, M. (1991). Information as thing. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 42, 351-360. Available at:

Reddy, M.J. (1979). The conduit metaphor -- a case of frame conflict in our language about language. In A. Ortony (Ed.), Metaphor and thought (p. 284-297 only). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphorical systematicity: highlighting and hiding. In Metaphors we live by (pp. 10-13). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Recommended readings:

Agre, P.E. (1995). Institutional circuitry: thinking about the forms and uses of information. Information technology and libraries, 14(4). 225-230. Available at:

Buckland, M. (1998). What is a Document?. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 48(9), 804-809. Preprint available at:

Day, R.E. (2000). The "conduit metaphor" and the nature and politics of information studies. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 51(9), 805-811.

Shannon, C.E. & Weaver, W. (1963/1949). The mathematical theory of communication (pp. 31-35 only). Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Session 4 -- September 20

Topic:Cognitive Organization: Part I. Augmentation.

Required readings for Session 4:

Engelbart, D. C. (1963). A conceptual framework for the augmentation of man's intellect. In P. W. Howerton (Ed.), Vistas in information handling (p. 1-29). Washington, D.C.: Spartan Books. Republished (1998) in Irene Greif (Ed.), Computer supported cooperative work: a book of readings (pp 35-65), San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann. Also republished (1992) in T. Nishigaki (Ed.), Organization and groupware, NTT Publishing.

Dourish, P. & Bell, G. (In press). The infrastructure of experience and the experience of infrastructure: meaning and structure in everyday encounters with space. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design. Available at:

Clark, A. (1998). Magic words: how language augments human computation. In P. Carruthers & J. Boucher (Eds), Language And thought: interdisciplinary themes (pp. 162-183). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Available at:

Recommended readings:

Goode, E. (2000). How culture molds habits of thought., 8 August 2000.

Jacob, E.K. (2001). The everyday world of work: two approaches to the investigation of classification in context. Journal of Documentation 57(1), 76-99.

Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1999). Philosophy in the flesh: the embodied mind and its challenge to Western thought (p. 3-36). New York: Basic Books.

Roszak, T. (1998). Evolution and the transcendence of mind. Perspectives 1(2). Available at: [Originally published in Network, May 15, 1996.]

Solomon, P. (2000). Exploring structuration in knowledge organization: implications for managing the tension between stability and dynamism. In C. Beghtol, L.C. Howarth and N.J. Williamson, Dynamism and stability in knowledge organization: proceedings of the Sixth International ISKO Conference, 10-13 July 2000, Toronto, Canada (pp. 254-260). Würzburg, Germany: Ergon Verlag.

Session 5 -- September 27

Topic:Cognitive Organization: Part II. Mental models.

Required readings for Session 5:

Norman, D. A. (1983). Some observations on mental models. In D. Gentner and A. L. Stevens (Eds.), Mental models (p. 7-14). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Rumelhart, D. E. (1984). Schemata and the cognitive system. In Wyer and Srull (Eds.), Handbook of social cognition, vol. 1 (p. 161-188). Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Schank, R., and Kass, A. (1988). Knowledge representation in people and machines. In U. Eco, M. Santambrogio and P. Violi (Eds.), Meaning and mental representation (p. 181-200). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Wurman, R. S. (1989). The understanding business. In Information anxiety: what to do when information doesn't tell you what you need to know (p. 51-82). New York: Doubleday. 1989.

Recommended readings:

Bower, B. (1996). Fighting stereotype stigma. ScinceNewsOnline (June 29, 1996). Available at:

DeCandido, G. A. (1999). Bibliographic good vs. evil in Buffy the Vampire Slayer. American Libraries (September), 44-47.

Engle, M. (1998). Remythologizing work: the role of archetypal images in the humanization of librarianship. Available at:

Miller, G. A. (1956). The magical number seven plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review 63, 81-87.

Session 6 -- October 4

Topic:Cognitive Organization: Part III. Categorization.

Required readings for Session 6:

Zerubavel, E. (1991) The fine line: making distinctions in everyday life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Thompson, B., and Thompson, B. (1991). Overturning the category bucket. Byte, 16 (1), 249-255.

Fabris, P. (1999). You think tomaytoes, I think tomahtoes. CIO WebBusiness (August 1, 1999). Available at:

Hammond, T.H. (1993). Toward a general theory of hierarchy: books, bureaucrats, basketball tournaments and the administrative structure of the nation-state. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 3(1), 120-145.

Recommended readings:

Jacob, E.K. (2000). The legacy of pragmatism: implications for knowledge organization in a pluralistic universe. In C. Beghtol, L.C. Howarth and N.J. Williamson, Dynamism and stability in knowledge organization: proceedings of the Sixth International ISKO Conference, 10-13 July 2000, Toronto, Canada (pp. 16-22). Würzburg, Germany: Ergon Verlag.

Parsons, J., and Wand, Y. (1997). Choosing classes in conceptual modeling. Communications of the ACM 40 (6), 63-69.

Tesar, P. (1991). The other side of types. In G. Rockcastle (Ed.) Midgård Monographs of Architectural Theory and Criticism, Number 2 (p. 165-175).

Ward, T.B. (1993). Processing biases, knowledge and context in category formation. In G.V. Nakamura, D.L. Medin & R. Taraban (Eds.), Categorization by humans and Machines. Psychology of learning and motivation vol. 29, (pp. 257-281). San Diego: Academic Press.

Session 7 -- October 11

Topic:Systematic Organization: Part I. Indexing Languages.

Required readings for Session 7:

Buckland, M. (1999) Vocabulary as a central concept in library and information science. In T. Arpanac et al. (Eds.), Digital libraries: interdisciplinary concepts, challenges, and opportunities. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science [CoLIS3] 23-26 May 1999, Dubrovnik, Croatia (p 3-12). Zagreb: Lokve. Available at:

Wellisch, H.H. (1995). Indexing languages: natural and controlled (p. 214-217). Indexing from A to Z, 2nd ed. New York: H.W. Wilson.

Jacob, E. K. (1994). Classification and crossdisciplinary communication: breaching the boundaries imposed by classificatory structure. In H. Albrechtsen and S. Oernager (Eds.), Knowledge organization and quality management: Advances in knowledge organization, vol. 4 (p. 101-108). Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag.

Recommended readings:

Ambroziak, J., and Woods, W.A. (1988). Natural language technology in precision content retrieval. Palo Alto, CA: Sun Microsystems Laboratories, Available at:

Bowker, L. (2000). A corpus-based investigation of variation in the organization of medical terms. In C. Beghtol, L.C. Howarth and N.J. Williamson, Dynamism and stability in knowledge organization: proceedings of the Sixth International ISKO Conference, 10-13 July 2000, Toronto, Canada (pp. 71-76). Würzburg, Germany: Ergon Verlag.

Broughton, V. (2000). Structural, linguistic and mathematical elements in indexing languages and search engines: implications for the use of index languages in electronic and non-LIS environments. In C. Beghtol, L.C. Howarth and N.J. Williamson, Dynamism and stability in knowledge organization: proceedings of the Sixth International ISKO Conference, 10-13 July 2000, Toronto, Canada (pp. 206-212). Würzburg, Germany: Ergon Verlag.

Huber, J. and Gillaspy, M.L. (2000). An examination of the discourse of homosexuality as reflected in medical vocabularies, classificatory structures, and information resources. In C. Beghtol, L.C. Howarth and N.J. Williamson, Dynamism and stability in knowledge organization: proceedings of the Sixth International ISKO Conference, 10-13 July 2000, Toronto, Canada (pp. 219-223). Würzburg, Germany: Ergon Verlag.

Soergel, D. (1985). Chapter 12: Terminological control (p. 213-222). Chapter 13: Index language functions (p. 225-249). Organizing information , San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Session 8 -- October 18

Topic:Systematic Organization: Part II. Classification.

Required readings for Session 8:

Jacob, E. K. (1991). Classification and categorization: drawing the line. In B. H. Kwasnik and R. Fidel (Eds.), Advances in classification research, vol. 2 (p. 67-83). Washington D.C.: American Society for Information Science.

Shera, J. H. (1965/1957). Pattern, structure, and conceptualization in classification for information retrieval. In Libraries and the organization of knowledge (p. 112-128). Hamden, CT: Archon.

Bliss, H. E. (1934). The problem of classification for libraries (p. 1-20). The principles of classification for libraries (p. 21-46). In The Organization of knowledge in libraries and the subject approach to books . New York: H. W. Wilson.

Williamson, N. (1998). An interdisciplinary world and discipline based classification. In W. M. el Hadi, J. Maniez, & S. A. Pollitt (eds.), Structures and relations in knowledge organization: Proceedings of the Fifth International ISKO Conference, 25-29 August 1998, Lille, France (p. 116-124). Würzburg, Germany: Ergon Verlag

Jacob, E.K., & Albrechtsen, H. (1997). Constructing reality: the role of dialogue in the development of classificatory structures. In I. C. McIlwaine (Ed.), Knowledge organization for information retrieval: Proceedings of the 6th International Study Conference on Classification Research, 14-16 June 1997, London (pp. 42-50). The Hague, Netherlands: International Federation for Documentation.

Recommended readings:

Hunter, E. (2000). Do we still need classification. In R. Marcella and A. Maltby (Eds.), The future of classification (p. 1-18). Aldershot: Gower.

Shera, J. H. (1965/1950). Classification as the basis of bibliographic organization. In Libraries and the organization of knowledge (p. 77-96). Hamden, CT: Archon.

Shera, J. H. (1965/1961). The dignity and advancement of Bacon. In Libraries and the organization of knowledge (p. 143-150). Hamden, CT: Archon.

Session 9 -- October 25

Topic:Systematic Organization: Part III. Enumerative Classification.

Required readings for Session 9:

Hunter, E. J. (2002). Classification made simple, 2nd ed. (pp. 40-58, 70-81, 86-88). Aldershot: Ashgate.

Olson, H. (1994). Universal models: a history of the organization of knowledge. In H. Albrechtsen and S. Oernager (Eds.), Knowledge organization and quality management: Advances in knowledge organization, vol. 4 (p. 72-80). Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag.

Dewey, M. (1972/1927). Decimal classification and relativ [sic] index. In A. F. Painter (Ed.), Reader in classification and descriptive cataloging (p. 81-86). NCR Microcard Editions.

Pietris, M. K. (1990). Library of Congress classification. In B. G. Bengtson and J. S. Hill (Eds.), Classification of library materials: current and future potential for providing access (p. 60-80). New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers.

Recommended readings

Buchanan, B. (1979). Theory of library classification. (p. 7-44). London: Clive Bingley.

Chan, L.M. and Hodges, T.L. (2000). The Library of Congress Classification. In R. Marcella and A. Maltby (Eds.), The future of classification (p. 105-128). Aldershot: Gower.

Dewey, M. (1972/1876). Catalogs and cataloging. In A. F. Painter (Ed.), Reader in classification and descriptive cataloging (p. 7-14). NCR Microcard Editions.

Donovan, J. M. (1991). Patron expectations about collocation: measuring the difference between the psychologically real and the really real. Cataloging and classification quarterly, 13 (2), 23-41.

Frohmann, B. (1994). The social construction of knowledge organization: the case of Melvil Dewey. In H. Albrechtsen and S. Oernager (Eds.), Knowledge organization and quality management: Advances in knowledge organization, vol. 4 (p. 109-117). Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag.

Mann, T. (Accessed 2000.01.06). Height shelving threat to the nations libraries. Available at: [Public comments available at: ]

Session 10 -- November 1

Topic:Systematic Organization: Part IV. Faceted Classification.

Required readings for Session 10:

Vickery, B. C. (1966). Introduction to faceted classification (pp. 9-18). Faceted classification schemes. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers School of Library Service.

Hunter, E. J. (2002). Classification made simple, 2nd ed. (pp. 4-39, 59-69, 82-85). Aldershot: Ashgate.

Ranganathan, S. R. (1962). Canons of classification. In Elements of library classification (p. 45-70). Bombay: Asia Publishing House.

Music Library Association. Working Group on Faceted Access to Music. (1994). Discussion paper: Faceted access to music: possibilities and ramifications. Available at:

Recommended readings:

Foskett, A.C. (2000). The future of faceted classification. In R. Marcella and A. Maltby (Eds.), The future of classification (p. 69-80). Aldershot: Gower.

Jacob, E.K., & Priss, U. (In press). Non-traditional indexing structures for the management of electronic resources. In H. Albrechtsen and J.-E. Mai (Eds.), Advances in classification research, vol. 10. Medford, NJ: Information Today for the American Society for Information Science.

Maniez, J. (1991). Are classifications still relevant in databases? In G. Negrini, T. Farnesi and D. Benediktsson (Eds.), Documentary languages and databases (pp. 120-129). Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag.

Priss, U. (2000). Comparing classification systems using facets. In C. Beghtol, L.C. Howarth and N.J. Williamson, Dynamism and stability in knowledge organization: proceedings of the Sixth International ISKO Conference, 10-13 July 2000, Toronto, Canada (pp. 170-175). Würzburg, Germany: Ergon Verlag.

Priss, U., and Jacob, E.K. (1999). Utilizing faceted structures for information systems design. In L. Woods (Ed.), Knowledge, Creation, Organization and Use: Proceedings of the 62nd ASIS Annual Meeting (pp. 203-212). Medford, NJ: Information Today.

Sanders, G. L. (1995). Introduction to data modeling concepts. In Data modeling (p. 16-38). Danvers, Mass.: Boyd Frasier.

Soergel, D. (1985). Chapter 14: Index language structure I: conceptual. In Organizing information (pp. 251-287). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Williamson, N., and McIlwaine, I. C. (1994). A feasibility study on the restructuring of the Universal Decimal Classification into a fully faceted classification system. In H. Albrechtsen and S. Oernager (Eds.), Advances in Knowledge Organization, vol. 4 (pp. 406-413). Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag.

Session 11 -- November 8

Topic:Systematic Organization: Part V. Precoordinate and Postcoordinate Indexing Systems.

Required readings for Session 11:

Taylor, A. G. (1995). On the subject of subjects. Journal of Academic Librarianship 21(6), 484-491.

Hunter, E. J. (2002). Classification made simple, 2nd ed. (pp. 89-136). Aldershot: Gower.

Foskett, A.C. (1996). Chapter 23: Library of Congress Subject Headings (pp. 336-347). The subject approach to information, 5th ed. London: Library Association Publishing.

Required readings for Session 11:

Recommended readings:

Drabenstott, K.M., Simcox, S., & Fenton, E.G. (1999). End-user understandings of subject headings in library catalogs. Library Resources & Technical Services 43(3), 140-160.

Foskett, A.C. (1996). Chapter 8: Alphabetical subject headings: Cutter to Austin (pp. 123-146). The subject approach to information, 5th ed. London: Library Association Publishing.

Holmes, N. (2001). The KWIC and the dead: a lesson in computing history. Computer 34(1), 144, 142-143.

Kilgour, F. G. (1998). Origins of coordinate searching. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 48(4), 340-348.

Svenonius, E., et al. (1992). Automation of chain indexing. In N. J. Williamson and M. Hudon (Eds.), Classification research for knowledge representation and organization (p. 351-364). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Session 12 -- November 15

Topic:Systematic Organization: Part VI. Thesauri and Syndetic Structure.

Readings for Session 12:

Aitchison, J., Gilchrist, A., & Bawden, D. (1997). Planning and design of thesauri (pp. 5-12). Structure and relationships (pp. 47-80). In Thesaurus construction: a practical manual, 3rd ed. London: Aslib.

Batty, D. (1998). WWW -- Wealth, Weariness or Waste: Controlled vocabulary and thesauri in support of online information access. D-Lib Magazine, November 1998. Available at:

Williamson, N.J. (2000). Thesauri in the digital age: stability and dynamism in their development and use. In C. Beghtol, L.C. Howarth and N.J. Williamson, Dynamism and stability in knowledge organization: proceedings of the Sixth International ISKO Conference, 10-13 July 2000, Toronto, Canada (pp. 268-274). Würzburg, Germany: Ergon Verlag.

Recommended readings:

Eddison, B., and Batty, D. (1988). Database design: words, words, words -- descriptors, subject headings, index terms. Database 11 (6), 109-113. [This is the first of two related articles and serves as an introduction to the following article by David Batty.]

Batty, D. (1989). Thesaurus construction and maintenance: a survival kit. Database 12 (1), 13-20.

Bearman, D., and Peterson, T. (1991). Retrieval requirements of faceted thesauri in interactive information systems. In S. M. Humphrey and B. H. Kwasnik (Eds.), Advances in classification research, vol. 1 (p. 9-23). Medford, NJ: Learned Information.

Calzolari, N. (1988). The dictionary and the thesaurus can be combined. In M. W. Evans (Ed.), Relational models of the lexicon (p. 75-95). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dykstra, M. (1988). LC subject headings disguised as a thesaurus. Library Journal 113(4), 42-46.

Johnson, E. H. (1995). A hypertext interface for a searcher's thesaurus. Available at:

Riesthuis, G.J.A. (2000). Multilingual subject access and the Guidelines for the extablishment and development of multilingual thesauri. In C. Beghtol, L.C. Howarth and N.J. Williamson, Dynamism and stability in knowledge organization: proceedings of the Sixth International ISKO Conference, 10-13 July 2000, Toronto, Canada (pp. 131-135). Würzburg, Germany: Ergon Verlag.

Spiteri, L.F. (1999). The essential elements of faceted thesauri. Cataloguing and Classification Quarterly 28(4), 31-47.

Session 13 -- November 29

Topic:Representation of Nontextual Materials.

Readings for Session 13:

Berinstein, P. (1999). The big picture - Do you see what I see? Image indexing principles for the rest of us. Online 23(2), 85-86, 88.

Gombrich, E. H. (1992). The visual image. Scientific American, 221, 86-96.

Layne, S. S. (1994). Some issues in the indexing of images. JASIS, 45(8), 583-588.

Krause, M. G. (1988). Intellectual problems of indexing picture collections. Audiovisual Librarian, 14, 73-81.

Recommended readings:

Austin, D. L. (1994). An image is not an object: but it can help. In A. H. Helal and J. W. Weiss (Eds.), Resource sharing: new technologies as a must for universal availability of information, (p. 277-294). Essen: Universitätsbibliothek Essen.

Chen, H., & Rasmussen, E. (1999). Intellectual access to images. Library Trends 48(2), 291-303.

Gazan, R. (2000). Whose truth? Context and meaning in digital image collections. Available at:

Grund, A. (1993). ICONCLASS: On subject analysis of iconographic representations of works of art. Knowledge organization, 20, 20-29.

ICONCLASS Home Page. (1999). Available at:

Jack, C. (1999). State of the arts: current applications for indexing images. Available at:

O'Connor, B. C. (1996). Pictures, aboutness, and user-generated descriptors. Available at:

Session 14 -- December 6

Topic: Organizing Digital Collections.

Readings for Session 14:

Berners-Lee, T., Hendler, J. & Lassila, O. (2001). The Semantic Web. Scientific American (May 2001).

Levy, D. M. (1995). Cataloguing in the digital order: Paper regarding the future of cataloguing, from the Digital Libraries 95 conference. Available at:

Greenberg, J. (2005). Understanding metadata and metadata schemes. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 40(3/4), 17-36.

Jacob, E. K. (2003). Ontologies and the Semantic Web. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 29(4), 19-22.

Recommended readings -- Organizing Digital Collections:

Buchanan, L. (1999). The smartest little company in America. Inc. (January 1999), 48 ff.

Chan, L. M. (1990). Subject analysis tools online: The challenge ahead. Information Technology and Libraries 9(3), 258-262.

Coffman, S. (1999). Building earth's largest library: driving into the future. Searcher, 7(3). Available at:

Denenberg, R. (1996). Structuring and indexing the Internet. Available at:

Filman, R. E., & Pant, S. (1998). Searching the Internet. IEEE Internet Computing (Aug.). Abstract with access to html and pdf verions of this document are available at:

Frank, D.G., et al. (1999). The changing nature of reference and information services: predictions and realities. Reference & User Services Quarterly, 39(2), 151-157.

Keller, L. (November 28, 2000). Looking it up: not an endangered career. Available at:

Libicki, M., et al. (2000). Knowledge organization and digital libraries. Appendix C in Scaffolding the new Web: standards and standards policy for the digital economy (p. 75-90). Rand. Available at:

Recommended readings -- Hypertext:

Dillon, A. (1996). Myths, misconceptions, and an alternative perspective on information usage and the electronic medium. In J.-F. Rouet et al. (Eds.), Hypertext and cognition (p.25-42). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Simpson, R., et al. (1996). 50 years after "As we may think": The Brown/MIT Vannevar Bush Symposium. Interactions, 3(2), 47-67.

Nelson, T. H. (1994). Xanadu: document interconnection enabling re-use with automatic author credit and royalty accounting. Information Services & Use, 14, 255-265.

Project Xanadu. Available at: http://www.xanadu.coml

Rheingold, H. (1996). Life in cyberspace: the road to Xanadu has been a slow go. Newsday (11-17-1996), A66.

Saletan, W. (1998). Searching for Xanadu. Swarthmore College Bulletin, 96(3), 16-19.

Recommended readings -- Metadata:

Baca, Murtha (Ed.). (1998). Introduction to metadata: pathways to digital information. Table of contents available at: Also available at: [This book is available in its entirety online. It includes: Defining metadata by Anne J. Gilliland-Swetland; Metadata and the World Wide Web by Tony Gill; Crosswalks, metadata, mapping and interoperability by Willy Cromwell-Kessler; and A crosswalk of metadata standards. This book also contains a section entitled Acronyms with selected web addresses that provides links to various metadata resources. You may also want to take at look at the Glossary.]

Berners-Lee, T. (1996). The world wide web: past, present and future. Available at:

Buckland, M., & et al. (1999). Mapping entry vocabulary to unfamiliar metadata vocabularies. D-Lib Magazine 5(1). Available at:

Lagoze, C. (1997). From static to dynamic surrogates: resource discovery in the digital age. D-Lib Magazine (June 1997). Available at:

Lassila, O. (1998). Web metadata: a matter of semantics. IEEE Internet Computing, 2(4), 30-37.

Milstead, J., & Feldman, S. (1999). Metadata: cataloging by any other name . Online (January 1999). Available [with following article] at:

Milstead, J., & Feldman, S. (1999). Metadata projects and standards. Online (January 1999).

National Information Standards Organization. (2004). Understanding metadata. Available at:

Vellucci, S.L. (1997). Options for organizing electronic resources: the coexistence of metadata. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science, 24(1). Available at: