Indiana University School of Library and Information Science

S634 : Metadata : Spring 2008

Instructor: Elin Jacob <ejacob@indiana.edu>

Office phone: 812-855-4671

Office hours: Monday 10:00-12:00 am or by appointment

COURSE SYLLABUS (v2.0)



Introduction

Metadata plays an ever more important role in the development of the digital environment. Metadata structures can facilitate resource discovery, document the contents of databases and track the textual and digital history of resources. The increasing number and variety of metadata schemes requires familiarity with metadata structures that have been developed for specific communities of resource users as well as those that are intended for more general applications. It is important for information professionals to appreciate the increasing importance of metadata in the administration of digital resources, in the provision of security, in the process of data mining and in e-commerce.

This course is intended to introduce students to the principles underlying the development and implementation of metadata schemes; to issues of interoperability, standardization, and the evaluation of metadata schemes; and to the role of metadata registries and crosswalks. The class is designed to provide extensive opportunities for hands-on application of these principles and practices in the development, implementation and evaluation of metadata records.

Course objectives

At the completion of this course, a student will:

1) understand the function of metadata in the administration, organization and discovery of resources and its potential for data mining, security, and e-commerce;

2) be aware of a range of metadata schemes developed for various disciplinary and commercial/industrial communities;

3) appreciate the utility of syntactical standards and the need for semantic models that support interoperability across metadata structures;

4) have the knowledge and skills necessary to design and implement a new metadata scheme; and

5) have developed a set of criteria for evaluating existing metadata structures.

Class organization

Each session will include lectures by the instructor, class discussions and, when appropriate, in-class activities and review of out-of-class exercises.

Required readings

There is no required text for this class. Most required and recommended readings will be available through IUB's electronic reserves. Readings that are not available electronically will be placed on reserve in hardcopy format in the Kent Cooper Room. Required readings are subject to amendment by the instructor.

Special needs

If you are a student with a special need, please feel free to discuss it with me.

Grading

The student's final course grade will be computed on the basis of letter grades assigned for class participation, practical exercises, an in-class presentation and a final project. Satisfactory fulfillment of the minimum course requirements as outlined in the syllabus is considered "Good work" and will constitute a grade of B. (See p. 3 of this syllabus for the definitions of letter grades adopted by SLIS faculty on November 11, 1996). A grade of A for work demonstrating "Outstanding achievement" or a grade of A- for "Excellent achievement" reflecting "thorough knowledge of the course materials" will be assigned only when both the intellectual quality and the originality and/or creativity of the student's work far surpass expectations reflected in the minimum course requirements.

The final course grade will be computed according to the following distribution:

Class participation: 10%

Exercises 30%

Term paper 20%

Course project 40%

100%

Class participation

Because learning is an active process, each student will be expected to contribute to all class activities. Class participation will constitute 10% of each student's final grade and will be evaluated on the basis of class attendance, indications of effective preparation, and active participation in class discussions and other activities.

Exercises

In addition to reading assignments for each class session, there will be three practical exercises involving application of theories and materials covered in class. These exercises will constitute 30% of the final grade and will include:

Exercise 1 due February 11 The Dublin Core [5%]

Exercise II due March 3 DCMI Element Core in RDF [10%]

Exercise III due March 24 RDF Semantics [5%]

Exercise IV due April 14 DCMI Metadata Terms in RDF [10%]

All exercises will involve application of specific metadata schemes and architectures to the representation of a small collection of both text-based and non-text documents selected by the instructor.

Term paper

Each student will prepare a term paper that compares and contrasts two metadata schemes developed for representation and retrieval of resources for two related communities of users. Each student will cover the significant issues related to the metadata schemes, including: history of each scheme; representational and organizational characteristics of each scheme and differences across schemes; influence of the target resource collection on the structure of each scheme; and a critical evaluation that addresses specific strengths and weaknesses of the two schemes. The term paper constitutes 20% of the final grade and will be due no later than 5:00 pm on April 7, 2008.

Course project

The course project will involve development of a metadata scheme for a collection of digital resources selected from a list of resources of varying media types provided by the instructor. The components of the project will include: identification of a set of metadata elements and attributes appropriate to represent the resources in the collection; construction of a metadata scheme (with definitions for all metadata elements ) using the RDF architecture; application of the metadata scheme to construct surrogates for each resource in the collection; and an evaluation of the utility of the metadata scheme following implementation. The course project constitutes 40% of the final grade and will be due no later than 5:00 pm on April 28, 2008.

Grading scale

All grades will be assigned according to the SLIS Grading Policy for Master's and Specialist Level Students. This policy was defined by student and faculty members of SLIS's Curriculum Steering Committee and was adopted by the Faculty of the School of Library and Information Science, Indiana University, on November 11, 1996, as an aid in evaluation of student performance:

Numerical

Grade Equivalent Definition

A 4.0 Outstanding achievement. Student performance demonstrates

full command of the course materials and evinces a high level

of originality and/or creativity that far surpasses course expectations.

A- 3.7 Excellent achievement. Student performance demonstrates

thorough knowledge of the course materials and exceeds course

expectations by completing all requirements in a superior manner.

B+ 3.3 Very good work. Student performance demonstrates above-average

comprehension of the course materials and exceeds course expectations

on all tasks as defined in the course syllabus.

B 3.0 Good work. Student performance meets designated course expectations,

demonstrates understanding of the course materials and performs at an

acceptable level.

B- 2.7 Marginal work. Student performance demonstrates incomplete

understanding of course materials.

C+ 2.3 Unsatisfactory work. Student performance demonstrates incomplete

C 2.0 and inadequate understanding of course materials.

C- 1.7 Unacceptable work. Coursework performed at this level will not count

D+ 1.3 toward the MLS or MIS degree. For the course to count toward the

D 1.0 degree, the student must repeat the course with a passing grade.

D- 0.7

F 0.0 Failing. Student may continue in program only with permission

of the Dean.

Late submissions

In fairness to students who turn in exercises on time, late papers will be penalized by lowering the earned grade by one level (e.g., from B to B-) for every day that the assignment is late.

Incompletes

Each student is expected to structure his/her time so as to complete all coursework in accordance with the class schedule. A grade of incomplete will be considered only when exceptional circumstances warrant.

Academic dishonesty

Policies on academic dishonesty have been established by Indiana University and the School of Library and Information Science. These policies, which have been set out in Indiana University's Code of Student Rights Responsibilities and Student Conduct will be adhered to in this class. The Code is available at http://campuslife.indiana.edu/Code/index1.html [See Section III.A Student Misconduct--Academic Misconduct which is available online at http://campuslife.indiana.edu/Code/toc.html#sec3 ].

Any assignment that contains plagiarized material or indicates any other form of academic dishonesty will receive, at a minimum, a grade of F. A second instance will result in an automatic grade of F for the course. Penalties may be harsher depending upon the severity of the offense.


Schedule of

LECTURES, ASSIGNMENTS and READINGS

The following schedule contains, for each class session, a statement of the topic to be addressed in lecture and discussion, a brief description of each assignment and a list of materials that are to be read before class. Required readings are to be read in the order in which they are listed. Recommended materials are listed alphabetically and may be read in any order. Readings are subject to amendment by the instructor.

Session 1 -- January 7

• Lecture: Course introduction.

Session 2 -- January 14

• Lecture: What is metadata?.

• Required readings for Session 2:

Krockel, H. & Westbrook, J. H. (1987). Computerized materials-information systems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences 322(1567), 373-391.

American Library Association. Committee on Cataloging: Description and Access. Task Force on Metadata. (2000). Appendix II: Definitions submitted with sources. In Final report, June 2000. Available on the PSU Libraries web site: http://www.libraries.psu.edu/tas/jca/ccda/tf-meta6.html#appx2

Gilliland, A.J. (2005). Setting the stage. In M. Baca (Ed.), Introduction to metadata: pathways to digital information. Online edition, version 2.1. Available on the Getty web site: http://www.getty.edu/research/conducting_research/standards/intrometadata/setting.html

Gill, T. (2005). Metadata and the World Wide Web. In M. Baca (Ed.), Introduction to metadata: pathways to digital information. Online edition, version 2.1. Available on the Getty web site: http://www.getty.edu/research/conducting_research/standards/intrometadata/metadata.html

• Recommended readings for Session 2:

American Library Association. Committee on Cataloging: Description and Access. Task Force on Metadata. (2000). Final report, June 2000. Available on the PSU Libraries web site: http://www.libraries.psu.edu/tas/jca/ccda/tf-meta6.html

Session 3 -- January 21

NO CLASS

Session 4 -- January 28

• Lecture: Metadata principles, practical applications and ongoing issues.

Lagoze, C. (1997). From static to dynamic surrogates: resource discovery in the digital age. D-Lib Magazine 3(June). Available on the D-Lib web site: http://www.dlib.org/dlib/june97/06lagoze.html

National Information Standards Organization. (2004). Understanding metadata. Available on the NISO we site: http://www.niso.org/standards/resources/UnderstandingMetadata.pdf

Duval, E. et al. (2002). Metadata principles and practicalities. D-Lib Magazine 8(4). Available on the D-Lib web site: http://www.dlib.org/dlib/april02/weibel/04weibel.html

National Information Standards Organization. (2007). The Dublin Core Metadata Element Set. ANSI/NISO Z39.85-2007. American National Standards Institute. Available on the NISO web site: http://www.niso.org/standards/resources/Z39-85-2007.pdf

• Recommended readings for Session 4:

Beall, J. (2006). Metadata schemes points of comparison. Available on the world wide web: http://eprints.rclis.org/archive/00005544/01/comparingschemes.pdf

Dempsey, L. & Heery, R. (1997). An overview of resource description issues. Available on the UKOLN web site: http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/metadata/desire/overview/rev_01.htm

Greenberg, J. (2005). Understanding metadata and metadata schemes. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 40(3/4), 17-36. [Available in electronic format through IUCAT with authorized logon]

SCHEMAS: Forum for Metadata Schema Implementers. (2002). The SCHEMAS Forum: a retrospective Glossary. Available on the SCHEMAS web site: http://www.schemas-forum.org/info-services/d74.htm

SCHEMAS: Forum for Metadata Schema Implementers. (2002). Eighth Metadata Watch Report ([April] 2002). Available on the SCHEMAS web site: http://www.schemas-forum.org/metadata-watch/d29/d29.htm

Session 5 -- February 4

• Lecture: Introduction to Dublin Core Metadata Initiative and DCMI Element Set

• Required readings for Session 5:

Dublin Core Metadata Element Set, Version 1.1: Reference Description. (2006). Available on the DCMI web site: http://dublincore.org/documents/dces/

Wilson, A. (2003). Why the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) is important. DigiCULT.Info (6), 32-34. Available on the world wide web: http://www.digicult.info/downloads/dc_info_issue6_december_20031.pdf Also available on the world wide web: http://www.digicult.info/downloads/html/1071657883/1071657883.html

Duff, W.M. (2003). The Dublin Core and its limitations. DigiCULT.Info (6), 31-32. Available on the world wide web: http://www.digicult.info/downloads/dc_info_issue6_december_20031.pdf Also available on the world wide web: http://www.digicult.info/downloads/html/1071657883/1071657883.html

Hillman, D. (2005). Using Dublin Core. Available on the DCMI web site: http://dublincore.org/documents/usageguide/ [Sections 4-8 of this paper must be accessed either through links in the Table of Contents or through links at the end of the resource.]

Powell, A. (2003). Expressing Dublin Core in HTML/XHTML meta and link elements. Available on the DCMI web site: http://dublincore.org/documents/dcq-html

• Recommended readings for Session 5:

Cwiok, J. (2005). The defining element: A discussion of the creator element within metadata schemas. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 40(3/4), 103-134. [Available in electronic format through IUCAT with authorized logon]

Exercise 1 (5%) -- Due February 11

• Metadata records for 6 resources using DCMI Element Set in html meta-tag format

Session 6 -- February 11

• Review of Exercise 1

• Lecture: Overview of Resource Description Framework [RDF] model and syntax.

• Required readings for Session 6:

Berners-Lee, T., Hendler, J. & Lassila, O. (2001). The Semantic Web. Scientific American (May 2001).

Daconta, M.C.; Obrst, L.J. & Smith, K.T. (2003). Understanding the Resource Description Framework. In The semantic web: A guide to the future of XML, web services and knowledge management (p. 85-96 only). Indianapolis, IN: Wiley.

Berners-Lee, T. (1997). Axioms of Web architecture: metadata. Available on the W3C web site: http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/Metadata

Tauberer, J. (2006). What is RDF and what is it good for?. Available on the rdf:about web site: http://www.rdfabout.net/intro/?

Session 7 -- February 18

• Lecture: RDF model.

• Required readings for Session 7:

Bray, Tim. (1998). RDF and metadata. XML.com (June 9, 1998). Available on the xml.com web site: http://www.xml.com/pub/98/06/rdf.html

Tauberer, J. (2005). Quick intro to RDF. Available on the rdf:about web site: http://www.rdfabout.net/quickintro.xpd

Lassila, O. & Swick, R.R. (Eds.). (1999). Resource Description Framework (RDF) model and syntax specification. W3C Recommendation 22 March 1999 [REC-rdf-syntax-19990222]. Available on the W3C web site: http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-rdf-syntax-19990222/

• Recommended readings for Session 7:

Berners-Lee, Tim. (1998/2000). Why RDF model is different from the XML model. Available on the W3C web site: http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/RDF-XML.html

Bos, B. (2003). XML in 10 points. Available on the W3C web site: http://www.w3.org/XML/1999/XML-in-10-points

Miller, E. (1998). An introduction to the Resource Description Framework. D-Lib Magazine (May 1998). Available on the D-Lib web site: http://www.dlib.org/dlib/may98/miller/05miller.html

Swick, R. & Thompson, H.S. (Eds.). (1999). The Cambridge communiqué. Available on the W3C web site: http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/NOTE-schema-arch-19991007

Session 8 -- February 25

• Lecture: RDF syntax.

• Required readings for Session 8:

Lassila, O. & Swick, R.R. (Eds.). (1999). Resource Description Framework (RDF) model and syntax specification. W3C Recommendation 22 March 1999 [REC-rdf-syntax-19990222]. Available on the W3C web site: http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-rdf-syntax-19990222/

Beckett, D., Miller, E. & Brickley, D. (2002). Expressing Simple Dublin Core in RDF/XML. Available on the DCMI web site: http://dublincore.org/documents/2002/07/31/dcmes-xml/

Exercise II (10%) -- Due March 3

• Metadata records for original 6 resources using DCMI Element Set in RDF/XML format

Session 9 -- March 3

• Review of Exercise 2

• Lecture: RDFS semantics.

• Required readings for Session 9:

Brickley, D. & Guha, R. V. (2004). RDF Vocabulary Description Language 1.0: RDF Schema. W3C Recommendation 10 February 2004. Available on the W3C web site: http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/

• Recommended readings for Session 9:

Brockstra, J., et al. (2000). Adding formal semantics to the Web: building on top of RDF schema. Available on the On-To-Knowledge web site: http://www.ontoknowledge.org/oil/papers/extending-rdfs.html

Daconta, M.C.; Obrst, L.J. & Smith, K.T. (2003). Understanding the Resource Description Framework. In The semantic web: A guide to the future of XML, web services and knowledge management (p. 104-117 only). Indianapolis, IN: Wiley.

Session 10 -- March 17

• Lecture: RDF/RDFS implementation.

• Required readings for Session 10:

Brickley, D. & Guha, R. V. (2004). RDF Vocabulary Description Language 1.0: RDF Schema. W3C Recommendation 10 February 2004. Available on the W3C web site: http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/

Exercise III (5%) -- Due March 24

• Definition of schema elements in RDF/RDFS to include a minimum of six (6) new properties and three (3) new classes.

Session 11 -- March 24

• Review of Exercise 3

• Lecture: DCMI abstract model

• Required readings for Session 11:

Powell, A., Nilsson, M., Naeve, A. & Johnston, P. (2007). DCMI abstract model. Available on the Dublin Core website: http://dublincore.org/documents/2007/06/04/abstract-model/

Powell, A., Johnston, P., & Baker, T. (2008). Domains and ranges for DCMI properties. Available on the Dublin Core website: http://dublincore.org/documents/2008/01/14/domain-range/

DCMI Usage Board. (2008). DCMI metadata terms. Available on the Dublin Core website: http://dublincore.org/documents/2008/01/14/dcmi-terms/

Session 12 -- March 31

• Lecture: Implementing Dublin Core in RDF

• Required readings for Session 11:

Nilsson, M., Powell, A., Johnston, P., & Naeve, A. (2008). Expressing Dublin Core metadata using the Resource Description Framework (RDF). Available on the Dublin Core website: http://dublincore.org/documents/2008/01/14/dc-rdf/

Term paper -- Due by 5:00 pm on April 7

Session 13 -- April 7

• Lecture: The metadata project from resource collection to implementation.

• Required readings for Session 13:

Greenberg, J. (2003). Metadata generation: processes, people and tools. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 29(2), 16-19. Available on the ASIST web site: http://www.asis.org/Bulletin/Dec-02/greenberg.html

International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions. Working Group on the Use of Metadata Schemas. (2003). Guidance on the structure, content and application of metadata records for digital resources and collections: Report of the IFLA cataloguing Section Working Group on the use of Metadata Schemes [draft] (pp. 7-18 only). Available on the IFLA web site: http://www.ifla.org/VII/s13/guide/metaguide03.pdf

Chopey, M. A. (2005). Planning and implementing a metadata-driven digital repository. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 40(3/4), 255-287. [Available in electronic format through IUCAT with authorized logon]

• Recommended readings for Session 13:

Berners-Lee, T. (1998/2000). Web design issues. Available on the W3C web site: http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/Identity.html

Ferraioli, L. (2005). An exploratory study of metadata creation in a health care agency. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 40(3/4), 75-102. [Available in electronic format through IUCAT with authorized logon]

Library of Congress. (2000). Table of core metadata elements for Library of Congress Digital Repository development. Available on the Library of Congress web site: http://www.loc.gov/standards/metable.html

Library of Congress. (2005). Core metadata elements: Library of Congress digital repository development. Available on the Library of Congress web site: http://www.loc.gov/standards/metadata.html

Patel, M., White, M., Mourkoussis, N., Walczak, K. & Wojciechowski, R. (2005). Metadata requirements for digital museum environments. International Journal of Digital Libraries 5, 179-192.

Smiraglia, R. P. (2005). Content metadata: An analysis of Etruscan artifacts in a museum of archaeology. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 40(3/4), 135-151. [Available in electronic format through IUCAT with authorized logon]

Exercise IV (10%) -- Due April 14

• Metadata records for original 6 resources using DCMI Metadata Terms in RDF/XML format

Session 14 -- April 14

• Lecture: Simple Knowledge Organization System [SKOS].

• Required readings for Session 14:

Miles, A., Matthews, B. & Wilson, M. (2005). SKOS Core: Simple Knowledge Organisation for the Web. Available on the SKOS web site: http://isegserv.itd.rl.ac.uk/public/skos/press/dc2005/dc2005skospaper.pdf

Miles, A. and Brickley, D. (2005). SKOS Core Vocabulary Specification: W3C Working Draft 2 November 2005. Available on the W3C web site: http://www.w3.org/TR/2005/WD-swbp-skos-core-spec-20051102/

• Recommended readings for Session 14:

Miles, A. (2005). Simple knowledge organization and the semantic web: Notes on the Bliss Classification Association Annual Lecture 2005. Available on the SKOS web site: http://isegserv.itd.rl.ac.uk/public/skos/press/Bliss2005/skos-bliss-bulletin-2006.pdf

Miles, A. (2005). Quick Guide to Publishing a Thesaurus on the Semantic Web: W3C Working Draft 17 May 2005. Available on the W3C web site: http://www.w3.org/TR/2005/WD-swbp-thesaurus-pubguide-20050517/

Session 15 -- April 21

• Lecture: Interoperability: standards, registries, crosswalks.

• Required readings for Session 15:

Duval, E. (2001). Metadata standards: what, who & why. Journal of Universal Computer Science 7(7). Available on the J.UCS web site: http://www.jucs.org/jucs_7_7/metadata_standards_what_who

Day, M. (1999). Metadata: mapping between metadata formats. Available on the UKOLN web site: http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/metadata/interoperability/

St. Pierre, M. & LaPlant, W.P. (1998). Issues in crosswalking: content metadata standards. Available on the NISO web site: http://www.niso.org/press/whitepapers/crsswalk.html

Woodley, M. S. (2005). Crosswalks: the path to universal access? In M. Baca (Ed.), Introduction to metadata: pathways to digital information. Online edition, version 2.1. Available on the Getty web site: http://www.getty.edu/research/conducting_research/standards/intrometadata/path.html

• Recommended readings for Session 15:

Cover, R. (1998). Managing names and ontologies: an XML registry and repository. Sun Microsystems. Available on the world wide web: http://xml.coverpages.org/coverXMLReg199811.html

Dekkers, M. & Eilert, C. (2001). SCHEMAS: Forum for Metadata Schema Implementers. Standards Framework report 2. Available on the SCHEMAS web site: http://www.schemas-forum.org/stds-framework/2.html

Library of Congress. Network Development and MARC Standards Office. (2001). Dublin Core/MARC/GILS Crosswalk. Available on the Library of Congress web site: http://lcweb.loc.gov/marc/dccross.html

Research and Development Group of UKOLN. (1999). DESIRE Metadata Registry. Available on the UKOLN web site: http://desire.ukoln.ac.uk/registry/ [The index to the DESIRE Registry is available on the UKOLN web site: http://desire.ukoln.ac.uk/registry/index.php3 ]

Final project -- Due by 5:00 pm on April 28


Preliminary resources

for selected metadata schemes

Introductions to selected metadata schemes:

Baca, M. (Ed.). (2005). Introduction to metadata: pathways to digital information. Online edition, version 2.1. Available on the Getty web site: http://www.getty.edu/research/conducting_research/standards/intrometadata/index.html

Contains a crosswalk of metadata standards (available on the Getty web site: http://www.getty.edu/research/conducting_research/standards/intrometadata/crosswalks.html); a list of acronyms, many with links to online resources (available on the Getty web site: http://www.getty.edu/research/conducting_research/standards/intrometadata/acronyms.html); and a glossary of metadata terms (available on the Getty web site: http://www.getty.edu/research/conducting_research/standards/intrometadata/glossary.html).

Caplan, P. (2003). Metadata fundamentals for all librarians. Chicago: American Library Association. [Z666.5 .C37 2003 Contains brief overviews of major schemes as well as selected community-based schemes.]

SCHEMAS: Forum for Metadata Schema Implementers. (2001). Index of links [metadata projects grouped by domain]. Available on the SCHEMAS web site: http://www.schemas-forum.org/registry/registry.html See also Eighth Metadata Watch Report (2002). Available on the SCHEMAS web site: http://www.schemas-forum.org/metadata-watch/d29/d29.htm

Resources on specific schemes:

• Text Encoding Initiative [TEI]

Burnard, L. & Light, R. (1996). Three SGML metadata formats: TEI, EAD, and CIMI. A Study for BIBLINK Work Package 1.1. Available on the UKOLN web site: http://hosted.ukoln.ac.uk/biblink/wp1/sgml/title.html

Seaman, D.. (1994). Campus publishing in standardized electronic formats -- HTML and TEI. Available on the University of Virginia web site: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/articles/arl/dms-arl94.html

TEI guidelines for electronic text encoding and interchange: a gentle introduction to SGML. (n.d.) Available on the University of Virginia web site: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/standards/tei/teip4/index.html

• Encoded Archival Description [EAD]

Burnard, L., & Light, R.. (1996/1998). Three SGML metadata formats: TEI, EAD and CIMI. A Study for BIBLINK Work Package 1.1. Available on the UKOLN web site: http://hosted.ukoln.ac.uk/biblink/wp1/sgml/title.html

Pitti, D. V. (1999). Encoded Archival Description: an introduction and overview. D-Lib Magazine 5(11). Available on the D-Lib web site: http://www.dlib.org/dlib/november99/11pitti.html

• Encoded Archival Context [EAC]

Thurman, A. C. (2005). Metadata standards for archival control: An introduction to EAD and EAC. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 40(3/4), 183-212. [Available in electronic format through IUCAT with authorized logon]

• Metadata Object Description Schema [MODS]

Cantara, L. (2005). METS: The Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 40(3/4), 237-254. [Available in electronic format through IUCAT with authorized logon]

Library of Congress. (Accessed 2005-01-02). MODS: Metadata Object Description Schema official web site. Available on the Library of Congress web site: http://www.loc.gov/standards/mods/

• Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard [METS]

Library of Congress. (Accessed 2005-01-02). METS: An overview and tutorial. Available on the Library of Congress web site: http://www.loc.gov/standards/mets/METSOverview.v2.html See also the METS homepage available on the Library of Congress web site: http://www.loc.gov/mets

• Metadata Authority Description Standard [MADS]

Library of Congress. (Accessed 2005-01-02). MADS: Metadata Authority Description Standard official web site. Available on the Library of Congress web site: http://www.loc.gov/standards/mads/

• Collaborative Digitization Program [CDP]

CDP Metadata Working Group. (2006). Dublin Core Metadata best practices Version 2.1.1 (CDPDCMBP). Available on the Collaborative Digitization Program web site: http://www.cdpheritage.org/cdp/documents/cdpdcmbp.pdf

Bishoff, L., & Meagher, E. S. (2004). Building Heritage Colorado: The Colorado Digitization Experience. In D. Hillman & E. L. Westbrooks (Eds.), Metadata in practice (pp. 17-36). Chicago: American Library Association. [Z666.5 .M48 2004. Also available electronically through IUCAT with authorized logon]

• Western States Digital Standards Group [WSDSG]

Western States Digital Standards Group. Metadata Working Group. (2003). Western States Dublin Core Metadata best practices. Available on the J. Willard Marriott Library web site: http://content.lib.utah.edu/cgi-bin/showfile.exe?CISOROOT=/docs_regional&CISOPTR=1

Western States Digital Standards Group. Metadata Working Group. (2003). Western States digital imaging best practices. Available on the Collaborative Digitization Program web site: http://www.cdpheritage.org/digital/scanning/documents/wsdibp_v1.pdf

• Learning Object Metadata [LOM]

Friesen, N. (2004). CanCore: Semantic interoperability for Learning Object Metadata. In D. Hillman & E. L. Westbrooks (Eds.), Metadata in practice (pp. 104-116). Chicago: American Library Association. [Z666.5 .M48 2004. Also available electronically through IUCAT with authorized logon]

IEEE Learning Technology Standards Committee. (2005). The Learning Object Metadata Standard. Available on the IEEE web site: http://ieeeltsc.org/wg12LOM/lomDescription

IEEE Learning Technology Standards Committee. (2002). Final draft standard for Learning Object Metadata." Available on the IEEE web site: http://ltsc.ieee.org/wg12/files/LOM_1484_12_1_v1_Final_Draft.pdf

• Edinburgh Engineering Virtual Library [EEVL]

Moffat, M. (1996). An EEVL solution to engineering information on the Internet. Available on the EEVL web site: http://www.eevl.ac.uk/presentations/paper1.htm

• Open Archives Initiative [OAI]

Open Archives Initiative. (2002). Homepage. Available on the world wide web: http://www.openarchives.org/

• Global Information Locator Service [GILS]

Christian, E.J. (1996). GILS: What is it? Where's it going? D-Lib Magazine (December 1996). Available on the D-Lib web site: http://www.dlib.org/dlib/december96/12christian.html

• Content Standards for Digital Geospatial Metadata [CSDGM]

Federal Geographic Data Committee. (2001). National Geographic Information Infrastructure. (1998). Biological Data Profile workbook (for use with FGDC-STD-001-1998). Available on the National Biological Information Infrastructure web site: http://www.nbii.gov/images/uploaded/151871_1162508205217_BDP-workbook.doc

Hutchison, V., and Sepic, R. (2004). NBII Biological Metadata Standard Fact Sheet. Available on the National Biological Information Infrastructure web site: http://www.nbii.gov/images/uploaded/8496_1121889180723_BiologicalMetadataStandard.pdf

United States Geological Survey. (n.d.). Graphical image map of the Federal Geographic Data Committee Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata with the Biological Data Profile. Available on the National Biological Information Infrastructure web site: www.fgdc.gov/standards/projects/FGDC-standards-projects/metadata/base-metadata/v2_0698.pdf

• Categories for the Description of Works of Art [CDWA]

Baca, M. and Harpring, P. (Eds.). (2006). Categories for the Description of Works of Art. Available on the Getty Research Institute web site: http://www.getty.edu/research/conducting_research/standards/cdwa/

J. Paul Getty Trust College Art Association. (2005). CDWA Lite: 
XML Schema Content for Contributing Records via the OAI Harvesting Protocol (Version 1.1). In M. Baca and P. Harpring (Eds.), Categories for the Description of Works of Art. Available on the Getty Research Institute web site: http://www.getty.edu/research/conducting_research/standards/cdwa/cdwalite.html

• Visual Resources Association [VRA]

Visual Resources Association Data Standards Committee. (2002). VRA Core Categories, Version 3.0. Available on the Visual Resources Association Data Standards Committee web site: http://php.indiana.edu/~fryp/vracore3.htm [See also VRA Core Categories, Version 3.0: a project of the Visual Resources Association Data Standards Committee. Available on the Visual Resources Association Data Standards Committee web site: http://www.vraweb.org/projects/vracore3/index.html]

• Standard Music Description Language [SMDL]

SGML: SMDL Overview. (1998). Available on the OASIS web site: http://www.oasis-open.org/cover/smdlover.html

Computer Interchange of Museum Information. (1998). NEH Final Report . Project CHIO: CIMI's Exploration of Z39.50 for Distributed Search and Retrieval of Cultural Heritage. Available on University of North Texas web site: http://www.unt.edu/wmoen/projects/Z39.50/cimi/NEHReportDraft17Feb98.htm

European Network of Centres of Excellence for Research and Education in Digital Culture. (n.d.) Previous Work and State of the Art: Cultural Organizations, Projects, Standards, Policy and Networks. Available on the e-culture.net web site: http://www.eculturenet.org/data/previous.htm#top