L505: Organization and representation of knowledge and information
Second Summer 2004: Mondays and Wednesdays, 5:45-8:30 pm, LI001
Instructor: Erika Knudsen
Office Hours: by appointment
E-reserve password: OLIVE
The representation and organization of information and information resources is a primary focus of the information professions. Organizational and representational structures such as classification schemes, indexes and catalogs have been created and modified to provide access to information. With the advent of the information age, the information resource has undergone a revolution of new concepts and structures such as the web, metadata and knowledge management. As we move away from the printed word, the need for effective methods of representation and organization is even more vital as new technologies grow unchecked.
Practical and effective information systems depend on a comprehensive understanding not only of formal systems of organization and representation but also of human cognition itself. This course will investigate the basic principles and theoretical foundations of traditional representational and organizational schemes and review research in information science, cognitive science, semiotics, and computer science - research that has contributed to an understanding of how people obtain, store, retrieve and use information. It will also examine how these set theories and principles can contribute to more effective and efficient practices in the various new inceptions of representation and organization in the information age.
By the end of the course, participants will
The structure of each class session will be lectures supplemented with discussions of assigned readings and activities designed to illustrate the principles given in the lectures and readings. At each class session, the lecture/discussion will cover the topic indicated on the syllabus. Students are encouraged to participate in all lectures and discussions, as all participation will constitute 20% of the student's final grade.
Each student will be required to read the day's readings and record in his/her journal an entry discussing some aspect of each of the readings assigned for each class session. Failure to keep up with the assigned readings and/or record a journal entry for each reading will negatively impact both the class participation grade and the journal grade.
A packet with all the assigned readings will be available on reserve at the SLIS library and on e-reserve. The readings assigned for a particular class session are listed on the Syllabus.
The student's final course grade will be computed on the basis of letter grades assigned for the course project, quizzes, class participation and the journal.
Satisfactory fulfillment of the minimum course requirements as outlined in the syllabus is considered "good work" and will constitute a grade of B. A grade of A for work demonstrating "outstanding achievement" or a grade of A- for "excellent achievement" reflecting "thorough knowledge of the course materials" will be assigned with both the intellectual quality and the originality and/or creativity of the student's work far surpass expectations reflected in the minimum course requirements.
Class participation: 20%
Course Project: 25%
All grades will be assigned according to the SLIS Grading Policy for Master's and Specialist Level Students. This policy was defined by student a faculty members of SLIS's Curriculum Steering Committee and was adopted by the Faculty of the School of Library and Information Science, Indiana University, on November 11, 1996, as an aid in evaluation of student performance.
Outstanding achievement. Student performance demonstrates full command of the course materials and evinces a high level or originality and/or creativity that far surpasses expectations
Excellent achievement. Student performance demonstrates thorough knowledge of the course materials and exceed course expectations by completing all requirements in a superior manner
Very good work. Student performance demonstrates above-average comprehension of the course materials and exceeds course expectations on all tasks as defined in the course syllabus
Good work. Student performance meets designated course expectations, demonstrates understanding of the course materials and performs at an acceptable level.
Marginal work. Student performance demonstrates incomplete understanding of course materials.
Unsatisfactory work. Student performance demonstrates incomplete and inadequate understanding of course materials.
Unacceptable work. Coursework performed at this level will not count toward the MLS or MIS degree. For the course to count toward the degree, the student must repeat the course with a passing grade.
Failing. Student may continue in program only with permission of the Dean.
Class participation will constitute 20% of the final grade. It will be a composite grade based on class attendance, and participation in class discussions.
The journal, a written record of the path the student takes throughout the course, is a valuable learning tool. It is not graded upon the content, rather on the attempt and thought processes contained within. This journal can either be kept in a notebook format or as a series of computer files. All aspects of the course should be contained within this journal: summaries of assigned readings, class commentaries, class notes, and assignments/essays. Each entry should be dated, and have a heading to designate the type of entry.
Required Journal Entries:
1. An informative abstract, discussion or summary of the required readings. Each entry must include full citation information. The type of citation is the student's choice, it just needs to be consistent throughout the journal.
2. Essays/Assignments that are indicated on the syllabus.
3. Commentary on major points or ideas presented in lectures or class discussions.
Optional Journal Entries:
1. Discussion or abstracts of external readings (from the recommended reading lists or other outside readings)
2. Commentary on related topics.
Grading of Journals:
There will be three reviews of the journal, after the 4th session, after the 9th session, and again at the end of the semester. As the journal is integral to the learning process of the course, the multiple reviews will give the students a chance to get feedback on their progress in the course. At each review, a letter grade will be given, at the end of the semester, the three grades will be averaged for the final journal grade. The journal will be grades based on the inclusion of all required materials and evidence of active involvement within the course. Evidence of continuous additional effort (consistent inclusion of additional work above and beyond what the course requires) will result in a journal grade signifying excellent or outstanding achievement.
There will be three quizzes that will be presented during the summer session. These quizzes will consist an essay question or problem to respond to. This will account for 25% of the student's grade. The quizzes should be created on a word processor (no handwritten finals will be accepted), with both the spelling and the grammar checked.
The course project will be the creation of an access tool (a classification scheme, indexing system or other organizational structure) that supports retrieval of the intellectual content of the student's journal. This project will be discussed thoroughly near the completion of the course. This project is worth 25% of the student's final grade. It will be due no later than 5:00 pm August 12, 2004.
Academic Dishonesty: Any assignment that contains plagiarized material or indicated any other form of academic dishonesty will receive an automatic grade of F for the assignment. A second infraction will result in an automatic grade of F for the course.
Incompletes: Each student is expected to complete all coursework by the end of the term. A student may request a grade of incomplete under extreme circumstances. Requests for incompletes must be made no later than August 10, 2004.
Late Submissions: Late submissions will be penalized by lowering the grade by one letter grade increment (A- to B+, C to C-) per day the assignment is late.
Session 1 June 21: Introduction to the Course, Journaling & Importance of Organization
Macrorie, K. (1976). Chapter 16: Keeping a journal. Writing to be read, 2nd ed. (p. 147-158). Rochelle Park, NJ: Hayden.
Session 2 June 23: Abstracts
Borko, H., and Bernier, C. L. (1975). Characteristics and types of abstracts. In Abstracting concepts and methods (p. 3-24). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Assignment: Review the class handout on writing abstracts. Read the two "Articles for abstracting" (below). In your journal, write an indicative and an informative abstract for each article. Bring a copy of your abstracts to class.
Articles for abstracting:
Buckland, M. (1991). Information as thing. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 42, 351-360. Available at: http://www.sims.berkeley.edu/~buckland/thing.html
Randi, J. (1996). Investigating miracles, Italian-style. Scientific American (February 1996), 136.
Session 3 June 28: Data, Information and Knowledge
Shannon, C.E., & Weaver, W. (1963/1949). The mathematical theory of communication (p. 31-35 only). Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Seely Brown, J. & Duguid, P. (2000). Introduction. In The social life of information (p. 1-9). Boston: Harvard University Press.
Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphorical systematicity: highlighting and hiding. In Metaphors we live by (p. 10-13). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Reddy, M.J. (1979). The conduit metaphor -- a case of frame conflict in our language about language. In A. Ortony (Ed.), Metaphor and thought (p. 284-297 only). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Assignment: Drawing on the ideas in the readings, your own understanding and/or your personal intuitions, write a one- to two-page essay answering the question "What is information?"
Session 4 June 30: Representation
Barsalou, L. W. (1992). Representation. In Cognitive Psychology: an overview for cognitive scientists (p. 52-56 only). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Zerubavel, E. (1991). Islands of meaning (p. 5-20). The great divide (p. 21-32). The fine line: making distinctions in everyday life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Norman, D. (1993). The Power of Representation. Things that make us smart: Defining Human Attributes in the Age of the Machine. Reading: Perseus Books.
Peat, F. D. (1993). Science as story. In C. Simpkinson and A. Simpkinson (Eds.), Sacred stories (p. 53-62). San Francisco: Harper.
Assignment: In Things that make us smart, the representation of numbers is discussed in detail. Our Arabic numeral system, although compact, can lead to problems in both representation and computation. Roman numerals, although cumbersome to represent, make computations easy. In your journal, think of other representations used that may be problematic (i.e., computing with Arabic numerals), yet explain why our culture chooses the specific representations over the alternative.
Session 5 July 7: Cognitive Organization - Mental Models
Norman, D. A. (1983). Some observations on mental models. In D. Gentner and A. L. Stevens (Eds.), Mental models (p. 7-14). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Rumelhart, D. E. (1984). Schemata and the cognitive system. In Wyer and Srull (Eds.), Handbook of social cognition, vol. 1 (p. 161-188). Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Wurman, R. S. (1989). The understanding business. In Information anxiety: what to do when information doesn't tell you what you need to know (p. 51-82). New York: Doubleday. 1989.
Assignment: Visit any local grocery store and then create a script for "a trip to the grocery store". What problems, if any, do you face when attempting to construct a single script that will account for all aspects of the grocery store experience? Bring your grocery store script to class.
Session 6 July 12: Categorization
Tesar, P. (1991). The other side of types. In G. Rockcastle (Ed.) Midgård Monographs of Architectural Theory and Criticism, Number 2 (p. 165-175).
Jacob, E. K. (1991). Classification and categorization: drawing the line. In B. H. Kwasnik and R. Fidel (Eds.), Advances in classification research, vol. 2 (p. 67-83). Washington D.C.: American Society for Information Science.
Barite, M. G. (2000). The notion of "category": its implications in subject analysis and in the construction and evaluation of indexing languages. Knowledge Organization, 27(1/2), 4-10.
Assignment: Return to the local grocery store that you visited for Session 8. In your journal, write an analysis of the store's organization that focuses on: (1) the explicit and/or implicit categories indicated by the organization of merchandise; (2) why you think this particular organizational structure was adopted; and (3) how this organizational scheme accords with a typical shopper's mental model of a grocery store. Bring your analysis of the store's organization to class.
Session 7 July 14: Systematic Organization: Classification-Enumerative Schemes
Hunter, E. J. (1988). Classification made simple. (p. 1-59, 71-77). Aldershot: Gower.
Olson, H. (1994). Universal models: a history of the organization of knowledge. In H. Albrechtsen and S. Oernager (Eds.), Knowledge organization and quality management: Advances in knowledge organization, vol. 4 (p. 72-80). Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag.
Dewey, M. (1972/1876). Catalogs and cataloging. In A. F. Painter (Ed.), Reader in classification and descriptive cataloging (p. 7-14). NCR Microcard Editions.
Pietris, M. K. (1990). Library of Congress classification. In B. G. Bengtson and J. S. Hill (Eds.), Classification of library materials: current and future potential for providing access (p. 60-80). New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers.
Hunter, E. J. (2002). Classification made simple, 2nd ed. (pp. 40-58, 70-81, 86-88). Aldershot: Ashgate.
Session 8 July 19: Systematic Organization: Classification - Faceted Schemes
Sanders, G. L. (1995). Introduction to data modeling concepts. In Data modeling (p. 16-38). Danvers, Mass.: Boyd Frasier.
Vickery, B. C. (1966). Intoduction to faceted classification (p. 9-18). Faceted classification schemes. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers School of Library Service.
Ranganathan, S. R. (1962). Canons of classification. In Elements of library classification (p. 45-70). Bombay: Asia Publishing House.
Hunter, E. J. (2002). Classification made simple, 2nd ed. (pp. 4-39, 59-69, 82-85). Aldershot: Ashgate.
Session 9 July 21: Introduction to Indexing Languages
Buckland, M. (1999) Vocabulary as a central concept in library and information science. In T. Arpanac et al. (Eds.), Digital libraries: interdisciplinary concepts, challenges, and opportunities. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Conceptions of Library and Information Science [CoLIS3] 23-26 May 1999, Dubrovnik, Croatia, (p 3-12. Zagreb: Lokve. Available at: http://www.sims.berkeley.edu/~buckland/colisvoc.htm
Soergel, D. (1985). Chapter 12: Terminological control (p. 213-222). Chapter 13: Index language functions (p. 225-249). Organizing information , San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Wellisch, H.H. (1995). Indexing languages: natural and controlled (p. 214-217). Indexing from A to Z, 2nd ed. New York: H.W. Wilson.
Henige, D. (2002). Indexing: A Users' Perspective. Journal of Scholarly Publishing, July 2002. 230-247.
Assignment: In your journal, evaluate the effectiveness of indexing by extraction and indexing by assignment by contrasting the advantages and disadvantages of natural language and controlled vocabulary.
Session 10 July 26: Indexing: Pre-Coordinate, Subject Headings
Foskett, A.C. (1996). Chapter 8: Alphabetical subject headings: Cutter to Austin (p. 123-146); Chapter 23: Library of Congress Subject Headings (p. 336-347). The subject approach to information, 5th ed. London: Library Association Publishing.
Stone, A. T. (2000). The LCSH century: a brief history of the Library of Congress Subject Headings, and an introduction to the centennial essays. Cataloguing and Classification Quarterly, 29 (1/2), 1-15.
Taylor, A. G. (1995). On the subject of subjects. Journal of Academic Librarianship 21(6), 484-491.
Dykstra, M. (1988). LC subject headings disguised as a thesaurus. Library Journal 113(4), 42-46.
Session 11 July 28: Indexing: Post-coordinate, Thesauri
Eddison, B., and Batty, D. (1988). Database design: words, words, words -- descriptors, subject headings, index terms. Database 11 (6), 109-113. [This is the first of two related articles and serves as an introduction to the following article by David Batty.]
Batty, D. (1989). Thesaurus construction and maintenance: a survival kit. Database 12 (1), 13-20.
Spiteri, L. F. (1999). The essential elements of faceted thesauri. Cataloguing and Classification Quarterly, 28 (4), 31-47.
Hunter, E. J. (2002). Classification made simple, 2nd ed. (pp. 89-136). Aldershot: Gower.
Session 12 August 2: Indexing tools
Aitchison, J., and Gilchrist, A. (1987). Planning and design of thesauri (p. 3-10). Vocabulary control (p. 12-22). Specificity and compound terms (p. 23-33). Structure: basic relationships and classification (p. 34-60). In Thesaurus construction: a practical manual, 2nd ed. London: Aslib.
Anderson, J. D. and Perez-Carballo, J. (2001) The nature of indexing: how humans and machines analyze messages and texts for retrieval. Part II: Machine indexing, and the allocation of human versus machine effort. Information Processing and Management 37 (2). 255-77
Thilmany, J. (2002). Too Much Information. Mechanical Engineering, June 2003. 44-46.
Cavanagh, L. (2002). Automatic categorization: next big breakthrough in publishing? The Seybold Report: Analyzing Publishing Technologies 2 (6). 3-7.
• Read the following article: Bush, V. (1996/1945). As we may think. Interactions, 3(2), 35-46. Originally published in Atlantic Monthly, 176 (1), 101-108.]. Available at: http://www.theatlantic.com/unbound/flashbks/computer/bushf.htm
• Write indicative and informative abstracts for the Bush article.
• Provide two sets of terms that could be used to index the Bush article:
1) indexing by extraction -- generate a set of key words taken from the text
and/or the abstract;
2) indexing by assignment -- using the ASIS thesaurus, identify a set of postcoordinate
descriptors. The electronic version of the ASIS thesaurus is available at
• Assuming that Bush's article is a monograph, use the print format of Library of Congress Subject Headings (also known as LCSH or "the red books") to identify three or more subject headings that represent the intellectual content of this work. Which of these subject headings would lead to the single "most appropriate" representation of Bush's work?
• Using the electronic versions of DDC (available at http://www.tnrdlib.bc.ca/dewey.html) and LCC (available at: http://lcweb.loc.gov/catdir/cpso/lcco/lcco.html), identify the one class in each system that best accords with your "most appropriate" subject heading.
Session 13 August 4: Representation of Non-textual Materials
Gombrich, E. H. (1992). The visual image. Scientific American, 221, 86-96.
Layne, S. S. (1994). Some issues in the indexing of images. JASIS, 45(8), 583-588.
Krause, M. G. (1988). Intellectual problems of indexing picture collections. Audiovisual Librarian, 14, 73-81.
Session 14 August 9: Hypertext/Metadata/Information Architecture
Nelson, T. H. (1994). Xanadu: document interconnection enabling re-use with automatic author credit and royalty accounting. Information Services & Use, 14, 255-265.
Libicki, M., et al. (2000). Knowledge organization and digital libraries. Appendix C in Scaffolding the new Web: standards and standards policy for the digital economy (p. 75-90). Rand. Available at: http://www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR1215/
Smits, J. (1999). Metadata: An introduction. Cataloguing and Classification Quarterly, 27(3/4), 303-319.
Travis, I.L. (2000). Information architecture practice: an introduction. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science 26(6), 6-21. Available at: http://www.asis.org/Bulletin/Aug-00/travis.html
Session 15 August 11: Augmentation
Engelbart, D. C. (1963). A conceptual framework for the augmentation of man's intellect. In P. W. Howerton (Ed.), Vistas in information handling (p. 1-29). Washington, D.C.: Spartan Books.
Norman, D. (1993). The Human Mind. In Things that Make us Smart (p. 115-138). Cambridge: Perseus Books.
August 12: Journal/Access Tool Due
NOTE: Recommended readings are grouped loosely by general topic. Within each topic, individual readings are listed alphabetically. Recommended readings may be read in any order at any point across the semester.
Jacob, E.K., & Albrechtsen, H. (1999). When essence becomes function: post-structuralist implications for an ecological theory of organisational classi.), Exploring the contexts of information behaviour. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Research in Information Needs, Seeking and Use in Different Contexts, 13-15 August 1998fication systems. In T.D. Wilson & D.K. Allen (Eds, Sheffield, UK (pp. 519-534). London: Taylor Graham.
Fidel, R. (1986). Writing abstracts for free-text searching. Journal of Documentation, 42 (1), 11-21.
Lancaster, F. W. (1998). Abstracts: types and functions. In Indexing and abstracting in theory and practice, 2nd ed. (p. 94-106). Champaign, IL: Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Illinois.
Lancaster, F. W. (1998). Writing the abstract. In Indexing and abstracting in theory and practice, 2nd ed. (p. 107-26). Champaign, IL: Graduate School of Library and Information Science, University of Illinois.
Data, information and knowledge.
Buckland, M. (1998). What is a "Document"?. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 48(9), 804-809. Preprint available at: http://sims.berkeley.edu/~buckland/whatdoc.html
Machlup, F., and Mansfield, U. (1983). Cultural diversity in studies of information. In F. Machlup and U. Mansfield (Eds.), The study of information: Interdisciplinary messages (p. 3-39). New York: John Wiley.
Wilson, P. (1978). Some fundamental concepts of information retrieval. Drexel Library Quarterly 14(2), 10-24.
Arnheim, R. (1969). Words in their place. In Visual thinking (p. 226-253). Berkeley: University of California Press.
Brown, R. (1958). How shall a thing be called? Psychological Review 65, 14-21.
Schank, R., and Kass, A. (1988). Knowledge representation in people and machines. In U. Eco, M.
Santambrogio and P. Violi (Eds.), Meaning and mental representation (p. 181-200). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Zerubavel, E. (1991) The rigid mind (p. 33-60). The fuzzy mind (p. 81-114). The fine line: making distinctions in everyday life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Cognitive Organization - Mental Models.
Engle, M. (1998). Remythologizing work: the role of archetypal images in the humanization of librarianship. Available at: http://urislib.library.cornell.edu/archetype.html
DeCandido, G. A. (1999). Bibliographic good vs. evil in Buffy the Vampire Slayer. American Libraries (September), 44-47.
Bower, B. (1996). Fighting stereotype stigma. ScinceNewsOnline (june 29, 1996). Available at: http://www.sciencenews.org/sn_arch/6_29_96/bob1.htm
Hirschheim, R., and Klein, H. K. (1989). Four paradigms of information systems development. Communications of ACM 32 (10), 1199-1216.
Miller, G. A. (1956). The magical number seven plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychological Review 63, 81-87.
Bliss, H. E. (1934). The problem of classification for libraries. In The Organization of knowledge in libraries and the subject approach to books (p. 1-20). New York: H. W. Wilson.
Jacob, E.K. (2000). The legacy of pragmatism: implications for knowledge organization in a pluralistic universe. In C. Beghtol, L.C. Howarth and N.J. Williamson, Dynamism and stability in knowledge organization: proceedings of the Sixth International ISKO Conference, 10-13 July 2000, Toronto, Canada (pp. 16-22). Würzburg, Germany: Ergon Verlag.
Parsons, J., and Wand, Y. (1997). Choosing classes in conceptual modeling. Communications of the ACM 40 (6), 63-69.
Shapiro, J.J., and Hughes, S.K. (Accessed 08.15.00). The personal meaning scheme as principle of information ordering: postmodernism, transdisciplinarity, and the ontology of classification. Available at: http://www.iath.virginia.edu/ach-allc.99/proceedings/shapiro.html
Shera, J. H. (1965/1957). Pattern, structure, and conceptualization in classification for information retrieval. In Libraries and the organization of knowledge (p. 112-128). Hamden, CT: Archon.
Thompson, B., and Thompson, B. (1991). Overturning the category bucket. Byte, 16 (1), 249-255.
Zerubavel, E. (1991) The social lens (p. 61-81). The fine line: making distinctions in everyday life. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Bliss, H. E. (1934). The principles of classification for libraries. In The Organization of knowledge in libraries and the subject approach to books (p. 21-46). New York: H. W. Wilson.
Buchanan, B. (1979). Theory of library classification. (p. 7-44). London: Clive Bingley.
Donovan, J. M. (1991). Patron expectations about collocation: measuring the difference between the psychologically real and the really real. Cataloging and classification quarterly, 13 (2), 23-41.
Frohmann, B. (1994). The social construction of knowledge organization: the case of Melvil Dewey. In H. Albrechtsen and S. Oernager (Eds.), Knowledge organization and quality management: Advances in knowledge organization, vol. 4 (p. 109-117). Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag.
Hunter, E. (2000). Do we still need classification. In R. Marcella and A. Maltby (Eds.), The future of classification (p. 1-18). Aldershot: Gower.
Olson, H. A. (1999). Exclusivity, teleology, and hierarchy: our Aristotelean legacy. Knowledge Organization, 26 (2), 65-73.
Studer, P.A. (1977). Classification as a general systems construct. In B.M. Fry & C.A. Shepherd (Comp.), Information management in the 1980's: Proceedings of the[40th] ASIS Annual Meeting, Chicago, Illinois, September 26-October 1, 1977 (pp. 67, G6-G14, A1-A9). White Plains, NY: Knowledge Industry for American Society for Information Science.
Systematic Organization: Classification - Enumerative Schemes
Chan, L.M. and Hodges, T.L. (2000). The Library of Congress Classification. In R. Marcella and A. Maltby (Eds.), The future of classification (p. 105-128). Aldershot: Gower.
Dewey, M. (1972/1927). Decimal classification and relativ [sic] index. In A. F. Painter (Ed.), Reader in classification and descriptive cataloging (p. 81-86). NCR Microcard Editions.
Mitchell, J.S. (2000). The Dewey Decimal Classification in the twenty-first century. In R. Marcella and A. Maltby (Eds.), The future of classification (p. 81-92). Aldershot: Gower.
Shera, J. H. (1965/1950). Classification as the basis of bibliographic organization. In Libraries and the organization of knowledge (p. 77-96). Hamden, CT: Archon.
Shera, J. H. (1965/1961). The dignity and advancement of Bacon. In Libraries and the organization of knowledge (p. 143-150). Hamden, CT: Archon.
Systematic Organization: Classification - Faceted Schemes.
Bearman, D., and Peterson, T. (1991). Retrieval requirements of faceted thesauri in interactive information systems. In S. M. Humphrey and B. H. Kwasnik (Eds.), Advances in classification research, vol. 1 (p. 9-23). Medford, NJ: Learned Information.
Jacob, E.K., & Priss, U. (In press). Non-traditional indexing structures for the management of electronic resources. In H. Albrechtsen and J.-E. Mai (Eds.), Advances in classification research, vol. 10. Medford, NJ: Information Today for the American Society for Information Science. Revision of: Jacob, E.K., & Priss, U. (1999). Application of faceted classification structures in electronic knowledge resources. In H. Albrechtsen and J.-E. Mai (Eds.), Proceedings of the 10th ASIS SIG/CR Classification Research Workshop (pp. 87-106). Silver Spring, MD: American Society for Information Science.
Maniez, J. (1991). Are classifications still relevant in databases? In G. Negrini, T. Farnesi and D. Benediktsson (Eds.), Documentary languages and databases (p. 120-129). Frankfurt/Main: Indeks Verlag.
McIlwaine, I. (1998). The Universal Decimal Classification. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 48(4), 31-339.
McIlwaine, I.C. (2000). UDC in the twenty-first century. In R. Marcella and A. Maltby (Eds.), The future of classification (p. 93-104). Aldershot: Gower.
American Society of Indexers. (1996). Frequently asked questions about indexing. Available at: http://www.asindexing.org/index.html
Bowker, L. (2000). A corpus-based investigation of variation in the organization of medical terms. In C. Beghtol, L.C. Howarth and N.J. Williamson, Dynamism and stability in knowledge organization: proceedings of the Sixth International ISKO Conference, 10-13 July 2000, Toronto, Canada (pp. 71-76). Würzburg, Germany: Ergon Verlag.
Broughton, V. (2000). Structural, linguistic and mathematical elements in indexing languages and search engines: implications for the use of index languages in electronic and non-LIS environments. In C. Beghtol, L.C. Howarth and N.J. Williamson, Dynamism and stability in knowledge organization: proceedings of the Sixth International ISKO Conference, 10-13 July 2000, Toronto, Canada (pp. 206-212). Würzburg, Germany: Ergon Verlag.
Green, R. (1992). Insights into classification from the cognitive sciences: Ramifications for index languages. In N.J. Williamson and M. Hudson (Eds.), Classification research for knowledge representation and organization (p. 215-222). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
Huber, J. and Gillaspy, M.L. (2000). An examination of the discourse of homosexuality as reflected in medical vocabularies, classificatory structures, and information resources. In C. Beghtol, L.C. Howarth and N.J. Williamson, Dynamism and stability in knowledge organization: proceedings of the Sixth International ISKO Conference, 10-13 July 2000, Toronto, Canada (pp. 219-223). Würzburg, Germany: Ergon Verlag.
Jacob, E.K. (2000). The legacy of pragmatism: implications for knowledge organization in a pluralistic universe. In C. Beghtol, L.C. Howarth and N.J. Williamson, Dynamism and stability in knowledge organization: proceedings of the Sixth International ISKO Conference, 10-13 July 2000, Toronto, Canada (pp. 16-22). Würzburg, Germany: Ergon Verlag.
Pejtersen, A.M. and Albrechtsen, H. (2000). Ecological work based classification schemes. In C. Beghtol, L.C. Howarth and N.J. Williamson, Dynamism and stability in knowledge organization: proceedings of the Sixth International ISKO Conference, 10-13 July 2000, Toronto, Canada (pp. 97-109). Würzburg, Germany: Ergon Verlag.
Shera, J. H. (1965/1960). What lies ahead in classification. In J. H. Shera, Libraries and the organization of knowledge (p. 129-142). Hamden, CT: Archon Books.
Vickery, B.C. (1966). Aspects of information retrieval (p. 23-39). Faceted classification schemes. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers School of Library Service.
Williamson, N. (1998). An interdisciplinary world and discipline based classification. In W. M. el Hadi, J. Maniez, & S. A. Pollitt (eds.), Structures and relations in knowledge organization: Proceedings of the Fifth International ISKO Conference, 25-29 August 1998, Lille, France (p. 116-124). Würzburg, Germany: Ergon Verlag
Kilgour, F. G. (1998). Origins of coordinate searching. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 48(4), 340-348.
Svenonius, E., et al. (1992). Automation of chain indexing. In N. J. Williamson and M. Hudon (Eds.), Classification research for knowledge representation and organization (p. 351-364). Amsterdam: Elsevier.
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Listings of online thesauri:
American Society of Indexers. Available at: http://www.asindexing.org/thesonet.shtml
Queensland University of Technology. Homepage available at: http://www.fit.qut.edu.au/InfoSys/middle/cont_voc.html
Thesauri list available at: http://www.fit.qut.edu.au/InfoSys/middle/cont_voc.html#Thesauri
Ramsey, M., Chen, H., and Zhu, B. (1007). A collection of visual thesauri for browsing large collections of
geographic images. Available at: http://ai.bpa.arizona.edu/~mramsey/papers/visualThesaurus/visualThesaurus.html
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